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##### Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform Instruction Manual for Windows Powershell

Introduction to the manual
This manual is made to guide you step by step in setting up an OpenShift cloud environment on your own device. It will tell you what needs to be done, when it needs to be done, what you will be doing and why you will be doing it, all in one convenient manual that is made for Windows users. Although if you'd want to try it on Linux or MacOS we did add the commands necesary to get the CodeReady Containers to run on your operating system. Be warned however there are some system requirements that are necessary to run the CodeReady Containers that we will be using. These requirements are specified within chapter Minimum system requirements.
This manual is written for everyone with an interest in the Red Hat OpenShift Container Platform and has at least a basic understanding of the command line within PowerShell on Windows. Even though it is possible to use most of the manual for Linux or MacOS we will focus on how to do this within Windows.
If you follow this manual you will be able to do the following items by yourself:
● Installing the CodeReady Containers
● Updating OpenShift
● Configuring a CodeReady Container
● Configuring the DNS
● Accessing the OpenShift cluster
● Deploying the Mediawiki application
What is the OpenShift Container platform?
Red Hat OpenShift is a cloud development Platform as a Service (PaaS). It enables developers to develop and deploy their applications on a cloud infrastructure. It is based on the Kubernetes platform and is widely used by developers and IT operations worldwide. The OpenShift Container platform makes use of CodeReady Containers. CodeReady Containers are pre-configured containers that can be used for developing and testing purposes. There are also CodeReady Workspaces, these workspaces are used to provide any member of the development or IT team with a consistent, secure, and zero-configuration development environment.
The OpenShift Container Platform is widely used because it helps the programmers and developers make their application faster because of CodeReady Containers and CodeReady Workspaces and it also allows them to test their application in the same environment. One of the advantages provided by OpenShift is the efficient container orchestration. This allows for faster container provisioning, deploying and management. It does this by streamlining and automating the automation process.
What knowledge is required or recommended to proceed with the installation?
To be able to follow this manual some knowledge is mandatory, because most of the commands are done within the Command Line interface it is necessary to know how it works and how you can browse through files/folders. If you either don’t have this basic knowledge or have trouble with the basic Command Line Interface commands from PowerShell, then a cheat sheet might offer some help. We recommend the following cheat sheet for windows:
Https://www.sans.org/security-resources/sec560/windows\_command\_line\_sheet\_v1.pdf
Another option is to read through the operating system’s documentation or introduction guides. Though the documentation can be overwhelming by the sheer amount of commands.
MacOS
Https://www.makeuseof.com/tag/mac-terminal-commands-cheat-sheet/
Linux
https://ubuntu.com/tutorials/command-line-for-beginners#2-a-brief-history-lesson https://www.guru99.com/linux-commands-cheat-sheet.html
http://cc.iiti.ac.in/docs/linuxcommands.pdf
Aside from the required knowledge there are also some things that can be helpful to know just to make the use of OpenShift a bit simpler. This consists of some general knowledge on PaaS like Dockers and Kubernetes.
Docker https://www.docker.com/
Kubernetes https://kubernetes.io/

# System requirements

## Minimum System requirements

The minimum system requirements for the Red Hat OpenShift CodeReady Containers has the following minimum hardware:
Hardware requirements
Code Ready Containers requires the following system resources:
● 4 virtual CPU’s
● 9 GB of free random-access memory
● 35 GB of storage space
● Physical CPU with Hyper-V (intel) or SVM mode (AMD) this has to be enabled in the bios
Software requirements
The minimum system requirements for the Red Hat OpenShift CodeReady Containers has the following minimum operating system requirements:
Microsoft Windows
On Microsoft Windows, the Red Hat OpenShift CodeReady Containers requires the Windows 10 Pro Fall Creators Update (version 1709) or newer. CodeReady Containers does not work on earlier versions or other editions of Microsoft Windows. Microsoft Windows 10 Home Edition is not supported.
macOS
On macOS, the Red Hat OpenShift CodeReady Containers requires macOS 10.12 Sierra or newer.
Linux
On Linux, the Red Hat OpenShift CodeReady Containers is only supported on Red Hat Enterprise Linux/CentOS 7.5 or newer and on the latest two stable Fedora releases.
When using Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the machine running CodeReady Containers must be registered with the Red Hat Customer Portal.
Ubuntu 18.04 LTS or newer and Debian 10 or newer are not officially supported and may require manual set up of the host machine.

## Required additional software packages for Linux

The CodeReady Containers on Linux require the libvirt and Network Manager packages to run. Consult the following table to find the command used to install these packages for your Linux distribution:
Table 1.1 Package installation commands by distribution
Linux Distribution Installation command
Fedora Sudo dnf install NetworkManager
Red Hat Enterprise Linux/CentOS Su -c 'yum install NetworkManager'
Debian/Ubuntu Sudo apt install qemu-kvm libvirt-daemonlibvirt-daemon-system network-manage

# Installation

## Getting started with the installation

To install CodeReady Containers a few steps must be undertaken. Because an OpenShift account is necessary to use the application this will be the first step. An account can be made on “https://www.openshift.com/”, where you need to press login and after that select the option “Create one now”
After making an account the next step is to download the latest release of CodeReady Containers and the pulled secret on “https://cloud.redhat.com/openshift/install/crc/installer-provisioned”. Make sure to download the version corresponding to your platform and/or operating system. After downloading the right version, the contents have to be extracted from the archive to a location in your $PATH. The pulled secret should be saved because it is needed later. The command line interface has to be opened before we can continue with the installation. For windows we will use PowerShell. All the commands we use during the installation procedure of this guide are going to be done in this command line interface unless stated otherwise. To be able to run the commands within the command line interface, use the command line interface to go to the location in your$PATH where you extracted the CodeReady zip.
If you have installed an outdated version and you wish to update, then you can delete the existing CodeReady Containers virtual machine with the $crc delete command. After deleting the container, you must replace the old crc binary with a newly downloaded binary of the latest release. C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc delete
When you have done the previous steps please confirm that the correct and up to date crc binary is in use by checking it with the $crc version command, this should provide you with the version that is currently installed. C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc version
To set up the host operating system for the CodeReady Containers virtual machine you have to run the $crc setup command. After running crc setup, crc start will create a minimal OpenShift 4 cluster in the folder where the executable is located. C:\Users\[username]>crc setup  ## Setting up CodeReady Containers Now we need to set up the new CodeReady Containers release with the$crc setup command. This command will perform the operations necessary to run the CodeReady Containers and create the ~/.crc directory if it did not previously exist. In the process you have to supply your pulled secret, once this process is completed you have to reboot your system. When the system has restarted you can start the new CodeReady Containers virtual machine with the $crc start command. The$crc start command starts the CodeReady virtual machine and OpenShift cluster.
You cannot change the configuration of an existing CodeReady Containers virtual machine. So if you have a CodeReady Containers virtual machine and you want to make configuration changes you need to delete the virtual machine with the $crc delete command and create a new virtual machine and start that one with the configuration changes. Take note that deleting the virtual machine will also delete the data stored in the CodeReady Containers. So, to prevent data loss we recommend you save the data you wish to keep. Also keep in mind that it is not necessary to change the default configuration to start OpenShift. C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc setup
Before starting the machine, you need to keep in mind that it is not possible to make any changes to the virtual machine. For this tutorial however it is not necessary to change the configuration, if you don’t want to make any changes please continue by starting the machine with the crc start command.
C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc start  \ it is possible that you will get a Nameserver error later on, if this is the case please start it with* crc start -n 1.1.1.1 # Configuration It is not is not necessary to change the default configuration and continue with this tutorial, this chapter is here for those that wish to do so and know what they are doing. However, for MacOS and Linux it is necessary to change the dns settings. ## Configuring the CodeReady Containers To start the configuration of the CodeReady Containers use the command crc config. This command allows you to configure the crc binary and the CodeReady virtual machine. The command has some requirements before it’s able to configure. This requirement is a subcommand, the available subcommands for this binary and virtual machine are: get, this command allows you to see the values of a configurable property set/unset, this command can be used for 2 things. To display the names of, or to set and/or unset values of several options and parameters. These parameters being: ○ Shell options ○ Shell attributes ○ Positional parameters view, this command starts the configuration in read-only mode. These commands need to operate on named configurable properties. To list all the available properties, you can run the command$crc config --help.
Throughout this manual we will use the $crc config command a few times to change some properties needed for the configuration. There is also the possibility to use the crc config command to configure the behavior of the checks that’s done by the$crc start end $crc setup commands. By default, the startup checks will stop with the process if their conditions are not met. To bypass this potential issue, you can set the value of a property that starts with skip-check or warn-check to true to skip the check or warning instead of ending up with an error. C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc config get C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc config set C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc config unset C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc config view C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc config --help

## Configuring the Virtual Machine

You can use the CPUs and memory properties to configure the default number of vCPU’s and amount of memory available for the virtual machine.
To increase the number of vCPU’s available to the virtual machine use the $crc config set CPUs . Keep in mind that the default number for the CPU’s is 4 and the number of vCPU’s you wish to assign must be equal or greater than the default value. To increase the memory available to the virtual machine, use the$crc config set memory . Keep in mind that the default number for the memory is 9216 Mebibytes and the amount of memory you wish to assign must be equal or greater than the default value.
C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc config set CPUs C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc config set memory >

## Configuring the DNS

### Window / General DNS setup

There are two domain names used by the OpenShift cluster that are managed by the CodeReady Containers, these are:
crc.testing, this is the domain for the core OpenShift services.
apps-crc.testing, this is the domain used for accessing OpenShift applications that are deployed on the cluster.
Configuring the DNS settings in Windows is done by executing the crc setup. This command automatically adjusts the DNS configuration on the system. When executing crc start additional checks to verify the configuration will be executed.

### macOS DNS setup

MacOS expects the following DNS configuration for the CodeReady Containers
● The CodeReady Containers creates a file that instructs the macOS to forward all DNS requests for the testing domain to the CodeReady Containers virtual machine. This file is created at /etc/resolvetesting.
● The oc binary requires the following CodeReady Containers entry to function properly, api.crc.testing adds an entry to /etc/hosts pointing at the VM IPaddress.

### Linux DNS setup

CodeReady containers expect a slightly different DNS configuration. CodeReady Container expects the NetworkManager to manage networking. On Linux the NetworkManager uses dnsmasq through a configuration file, namely /etc/NetworkManageconf.d/crc-nm-dnsmasq.conf.
To set it up properly the dnsmasq instance has to forward the requests for crc.testing and apps-crc.testing domains to “192.168.130.11”. In the /etc/NetworkManageconf.d/crc-nm-dnsmasq.conf this will look like the following:
● Server=/crc. Testing/192.168.130.11
● Server=/apps-crc. Testing/192.168.130.11

# Accessing the Openshift Cluster

## Accessing the Openshift web console

To gain access to the OpenShift cluster running in the CodeReady virtual machine you need to make sure that the virtual machine is running before continuing with this chapter. The OpenShift clusters can be accessed through the OpenShift web console or the client binary(oc).
First you need to execute the $crc console command, this command will open your web browser and direct a tab to the web console. After that, you need to select the htpasswd_provider option in the OpenShift web console and log in as a developer user with the output provided by the crc start command. It is also possible to view the password for kubeadmin and developer users by running the$crc console --credentials command. While you can access the cluster through the kubeadmin and developer users, it should be noted that the kubeadmin user should only be used for administrative tasks such as user management and the developer user for creating projects or OpenShift applications and the deployment of these applications.
C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc console C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc console --credentials

## Accessing the OpenShift cluster with oc

To gain access to the OpenShift cluster with the use of the oc command you need to complete several steps.
Step 1.
Execute the $crc oc-env command to print the command needed to add the cached oc binary to your PATH: C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc oc-env
Step 2.
Execute the printed command. The output will look something like the following:
PS C:\Users\OpenShift> crc oc-env $Env:PATH = "CC:\Users\OpenShift\.crc\bin\oc;$Env:PATH" # Run this command to configure your shell: # & crc oc-env | Invoke-Expression
This means we have to execute* the command that the output gives us, in this case that is:
C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc oc-env | Invoke-Expression  \this has to be executed every time you start; a solution is to move the oc binary to the same path as the crc binary* To test if this step went correctly execute the following command, if it returns without errors oc is set up properly C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>.\oc
Step 3
Now you need to login as a developer user, this can be done using the following command:
$oc login -u developer https://api.crc.testing:6443 Keep in mind that the$crc start will provide you with the password that is needed to login with the developer user.
C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>oc login -u developer https://api.crc.testing:6443  Step 4 The oc can now be used to interact with your OpenShift cluster. If you for instance want to verify if the OpenShift cluster Operators are available, you can execute the command $oc get co
Keep in mind that by default the CodeReady Containers disables the functions provided by the commands $machine-config and$monitoringOperators.

## Creating and managing an application

There are a few ways to create and manage applications. Within this demonstration we’ll show how to create an application from the previously imported image.

### Creating the application

To create an image with the previously imported image go back to the console and topology. From here on select container image.
https://preview.redd.it/6506ea4iitv51.png?width=869&format=png&auto=webp&s=c0231d70bb16c76cd131e6b71256e93550cc8b37
For the option image you'll want to select the “image stream tag from internal registry” option. Give the application a name and then create the deployment.
https://preview.redd.it/tk72idniitv51.png?width=813&format=png&auto=webp&s=a4e662cf7b96604d84df9d04ab9b90b5436c803c
If everything went right during the creating process you should see the following, this means that the application is successfully running.

### Scaling the application

In OpenShift there is a feature called autoscaling. There are two types of application scaling, namely vertical scaling, and horizontal scaling. Vertical scaling is adding only more CPU and hard disk and is no longer supported by OpenShift. Horizontal scaling is increasing the number of machines.
One of the ways to scale an application is by increasing the number of pods. This can be done by going to a pod within the view as seen in the previous step. By either pressing the up or down arrow more pods of the same application can be added. This is similar to horizontal scaling and can result in better performance when there are a lot of active users at the same time.
https://preview.redd.it/s6i1vbcrltv51.png?width=602&format=png&auto=webp&s=e62cbeeed116ba8c55704d61a990fc0d8f3cfaa1
In the picture above we see the number of nodes and pods and how many resources those nodes and pods are using. This is something to keep in mind if you want to scale up your application, the more you scale it up, the more resources it will take up.

https://preview.redd.it/quh037wmitv51.png?width=194&format=png&auto=webp&s=5e326647b223f3918c259b1602afa1b5fbbeea94

### Network

Since OpenShift Container platform is built on Kubernetes it might be interesting to know some theory about its networking. Kubernetes, on which the OpenShift Container platform is built, ensures that the Pods within OpenShift can communicate with each other via the network and assigns them their own IP address. This makes all containers within the Pod behave as if they were on the same host. By giving each pod its own IP address, pods can be treated as physical hosts or virtual machines in terms of port mapping, networking, naming, service discovery, load balancing, application configuration and migration. To run multiple services such as front-end and back-end services, OpenShift Container Platform has a built-in DNS.
One of the changes that can be made to the networking of a Pod is the Route. We’ll show you how this can be done in this demonstration.
The Route is not the only thing that can be changed and or configured. Two other options that might be interesting but will not be demonstrated in this manual are:
- Ingress controller, Within OpenShift it is possible to set your own certificate. A user must have a certificate / key pair in PEM-encoded files, with the certificate signed by a trusted authority.
- Network policies, by default all pods in a project are accessible from other pods and network locations. To isolate one or more pods in a project, it is possible to create Network Policy objects in that project to indicate the allowed incoming connections. Project administrators can create and delete Network Policy objects within their own project.
There is a search function within the Container Platform. We’ll use this to search for the network routes and show how to add a new route.
https://preview.redd.it/8jkyhk8pitv51.png?width=769&format=png&auto=webp&s=9a8762df5bbae3d8a7c92db96b8cb70605a3d6da
You can add items that you use a lot to the navigation
https://preview.redd.it/t32sownqitv51.png?width=1598&format=png&auto=webp&s=6aab6f17bc9f871c591173493722eeae585a9232
For this example, we will add Routes to navigation.
https://preview.redd.it/pm3j7ljritv51.png?width=291&format=png&auto=webp&s=bc6fbda061afdd0780bbc72555d809b84a130b5b
Now that we’ve added Routes to the navigation, we can start the creation of the Route by clicking on “Create route”.
https://preview.redd.it/5lgecq0titv51.png?width=1603&format=png&auto=webp&s=d548789daaa6a8c7312a419393795b52da0e9f75
Fill in the name, select the service and the target port from the drop-down menu and click on Create.
https://preview.redd.it/qczgjc2uitv51.png?width=778&format=png&auto=webp&s=563f73f0dc548e3b5b2319ca97339e8f7b06c9d6
As you can see, we’ve successfully added the new route to our application.
Storage
OpenShift makes use of Persistent Storage, this type of storage uses persistent volume claims(PVC). PVC’s allow the developer to make persistent volumes without needing any knowledge about the underlying infrastructure.
Within this storage there are a few configuration options:
• Reclaim
• Recycle
• Delete
It is however important to know how to manually reclaim the persistent volumes, since if you delete PV the associated data will not be automatically deleted with it and therefore you cannot reassign the storage to another PV yet.
To manually reclaim the PV, you need to follow the following steps:
Step 1: Delete the PV, this can be done by executing the following command
$oc delete  Step 2: Now you need to clean up the data on the associated storage asset Step 3: Now you can delete the associated storage asset or if you with to reuse the same storage asset you can now create a PV with the storage asset definition. It is also possible to directly change the reclaim policy within OpenShift, to do this you would need to follow the following steps: Step 1: Get a list of the PVs in your cluster $oc get pv
This will give you a list of all the PV’s in your cluster and will display their following attributes: Name, Capacity, Accesmodes, Reclaimpolicy, Statusclaim, Storageclass, Reason and Age.
Step 2: Now choose the PV you wish to change and execute one of the following command’s, depending on your preferred policy:
$oc patch pv -p '{"spec":{"persistentVolumeReclaimPolicy":"Retain"}}'  In this example the reclaim policy will be changed to Retain. $oc patch pv  -p '{"spec":{"persistentVolumeReclaimPolicy":"Recycle"}}'
In this example the reclaim policy will be changed to Recycle.
$oc patch pv -p '{"spec":{"persistentVolumeReclaimPolicy":"Delete"}}'  In this example the reclaim policy will be changed to Delete. Step 3: After this you can check the PV to verify the change by executing this command again: $oc get pv

### Monitoring

Within Red Hat OpenShift there is the possibility to monitor the data that has been created by your containers, applications, and pods. To do so, click on the menu option in the top left corner. Check if you are logged in as Developer and click on “Monitoring”. Normally this function is not activated within the CodeReady containers, because it uses a lot of resources (Ram and CPU) to run.
https://preview.redd.it/an0wvn6zitv51.png?width=228&format=png&auto=webp&s=51abf8cc31bd763deb457d49514f99ee81d610ec
Once you have activated “Monitoring” you can change the “Time Range” and “Refresh Interval” in the top right corner of your screen. This will change the monitoring data on your screen.
https://preview.redd.it/e0yvzsh1jtv51.png?width=493&format=png&auto=webp&s=b2c563635cfa60ea7ce2f9c146aa994df6aa1c34
Within this function you can also monitor “Events”. These events are records of important information and are useful for monitoring and troubleshooting within the OpenShift Container Platform.
https://preview.redd.it/l90vkmp3jtv51.png?width=602&format=png&auto=webp&s=4e97f14bedaec7ededcdcda96e7823f77ced24c2

## User management

According to the documentation of OpenShift is a user, an entity that interacts with the OpenShift Container Platform API. These can be a developer for developing applications or an administrator for managing the cluster. Users can be assigned to groups, which set the permissions applied to all the group’s members. For example, you can give API access to a group, which gives all members of the group API access.
There are multiple ways to create a user depending on the configured identity provider. The DenyAll identity provider is the default within OpenShift Container Platform. This default denies access for all the usernames and passwords.
First, we’re going to create a new user, the way this is done depends on the identity provider, this depends on the mapping method used as part of the identity provider configuration.
for more information on what mapping methods are and how they function:
https://docs.openshift.com/enterprise/3.1/install_config/configuring_authentication.html
With the default mapping method, the steps will be as following
$oc create user  Next up, we’ll create an OpenShift Container Platform Identity. Use the name of the identity provider and the name that uniquely represents this identity in the scope of the identity provider: $oc create identity :
The is the name of the identity provider in the master configuration. For example, the following commands create an Identity with identity provider ldap_provider and the identity provider username mediawiki_s.
$oc create identity ldap_provider:mediawiki_s  Create a useidentity mapping for the created user and identity: $oc create useridentitymapping :
For example, the following command maps the identity to the user:
$oc create useridentitymapping ldap_provider:mediawiki_s mediawiki  Now were going to assign a role to this new user, this can be done by executing the following command: $oc create clusterrolebinding  \ --clusterrole= --user=
There is a --clusterrole option that can be used to give the user a specific role, like a cluster user with admin privileges. The cluster admin has access to all files and is able to manage the access level of other users.
Below is an example of the admin clusterrole command:
$oc create clusterrolebinding registry-controller \ --clusterrole=cluster-admin --user=admin  ## What did you achieve? If you followed all the steps within this manual you now should have a functioning Mediawiki Application running on your own CodeReady Containers. During the installation of this application on CodeReady Containers you have learned how to do the following things: ● Installing the CodeReady Containers ● Updating OpenShift ● Configuring a CodeReady Container ● Configuring the DNS ● Accessing the OpenShift cluster ● Deploying an application ● Creating new users With these skills you’ll be able to set up your own Container Platform environment and host applications of your choosing. # Troubleshooting Nameserver There is the possibility that your CodeReady container can't connect to the internet due to a Nameserver error. When this is encountered a working fix for us was to stop the machine and then start the CRC machine with the following command: C:\Users\[username]\$PATH>crc start -n 1.1.1.1
Should you run into a problem with Hyper-V it might be because your user is not an admin and therefore can’t access the Hyper-V admin user group.
1. Click Start > Control Panel > Administration Tools > Computer Management. The Computer Management window opens.
2. Click System Tools > Local Users and Groups > Groups. The list of groups opens.
3. Double-click the Hyper-V Administrators group. The Hyper-V Administrators Properties window opens.
4. Click Add. The Select Users or Groups window opens.
5. In the Enter the object names to select field, enter the user account name to whom you want to assign permissions, and then click OK.
6. Click Apply, and then click OK.

# Terms and definitions

These terms and definitions will be expanded upon, below you can see an example of how this is going to look like together with a few terms that will require definitions.
Kubernetes is an open-source system for automating deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications. Openshift is based on Kubernetes.
Clusters are a collection of multiple nodes which communicate with each other to perform a set of operations.
Containers are the basic units of OpenShift applications. These container technologies are lightweight mechanisms for isolating running processes so that they are limited to interacting with only their designated resources.
CodeReady Container is a minimal, preconfigured cluster that is used for development and testing purposes.
CodeReady Workspaces uses Kubernetes and containers to provide any member of the development or IT team with a consistent, secure, and zero-configuration development environment.

# Sources

submitted by Groep6HHS to openshift [link] [comments]

##### CLI & GUI v0.16.0.3 'Nitrogen Nebula' released!

This is the CLI & GUI v0.16.0.3 'Nitrogen Nebula' point release. This release predominantly features bug fixes and performance improvements.

# GPG signed hashes

We encourage users to check the integrity of the binaries and verify that they were signed by binaryFate's GPG key. A guide that walks you through this process can be found here for Windows and here for Linux and Mac OS X.
-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE----- Hash: SHA256 # This GPG-signed message exists to confirm the SHA256 sums of Monero binaries. # # Please verify the signature against the key for binaryFate in the # source code repository (/utils/gpg_keys). # # ## CLI 75b198869a3a117b13b9a77b700afe5cee54fd86244e56cb59151d545adbbdfd monero-android-armv7-v0.16.0.3.tar.bz2 b48918a167b0961cdca524fad5117247239d7e21a047dac4fc863253510ccea1 monero-android-armv8-v0.16.0.3.tar.bz2 727a1b23fbf517bf2f1878f582b3f5ae5c35681fcd37bb2560f2e8ea204196f3 monero-freebsd-x64-v0.16.0.3.tar.bz2 6df98716bb251257c3aab3cf1ab2a0e5b958ecf25dcf2e058498783a20a84988 monero-linux-armv7-v0.16.0.3.tar.bz2 6849446764e2a8528d172246c6b385495ac60fffc8d73b44b05b796d5724a926 monero-linux-armv8-v0.16.0.3.tar.bz2 cb67ad0bec9a342b0f0be3f1fdb4a2c8d57a914be25fc62ad432494779448cc3 monero-linux-x64-v0.16.0.3.tar.bz2 49aa85bb59336db2de357800bc796e9b7d94224d9c3ebbcd205a8eb2f49c3f79 monero-linux-x86-v0.16.0.3.tar.bz2 16a5b7d8dcdaff7d760c14e8563dd9220b2e0499c6d0d88b3e6493601f24660d monero-mac-x64-v0.16.0.3.tar.bz2 5d52712827d29440d53d521852c6af179872c5719d05fa8551503d124dec1f48 monero-win-x64-v0.16.0.3.zip ff094c5191b0253a557be5d6683fd99e1146bf4bcb99dc8824bd9a64f9293104 monero-win-x86-v0.16.0.3.zip # ## GUI 50fe1d2dae31deb1ee542a5c2165fc6d6c04b9a13bcafde8a75f23f23671d484 monero-gui-install-win-x64-v0.16.0.3.exe 20c03ddb1c82e1bcb73339ef22f409e5850a54042005c6e97e42400f56ab2505 monero-gui-linux-x64-v0.16.0.3.tar.bz2 574a84148ee6af7119fda6b9e2859e8e9028fe8a8eec4dfdd196aeade47e9c90 monero-gui-mac-x64-v0.16.0.3.dmg 371cb4de2c9ccb5ed99b2622068b6aeea5bdfc7b9805340ea7eb92e7c17f2478 monero-gui-win-x64-v0.16.0.3.zip # # # ~binaryFate -----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE----- iQIzBAEBCAAdFiEEgaxZH+nEtlxYBq/D8K9NRioL35IFAl81bL8ACgkQ8K9NRioL 35J+UA//bgY6Mhikh8Cji8i2bmGXEmGvvWMAHJiAtAG2lgW3BT9BHAFMfEpUP5rk svFNsUY/Uurtzxwc/myTPWLzvXVMHzaWJ/EMKV9/C3xrDzQxRnl/+HRS38aT/D+N gaDjchCfk05NHRIOWkO3+2Erpn3gYZ/VVacMo3KnXnQuMXvAkmT5vB7/3BoosOU+ B1Jg5vPZFCXyZmPiMQ/852Gxl5FWi0+zDptW0jrywaS471L8/ZnIzwfdLKgMO49p Fek1WUUy9emnnv66oITYOclOKoC8IjeL4E1UHSdTnmysYK0If0thq5w7wIkElDaV avtDlwqp+vtiwm2svXZ08rqakmvPw+uqlYKDSlH5lY9g0STl8v4F3/aIvvKs0bLr My2F6q9QeUnCZWgtkUKsBy3WhqJsJ7hhyYd+y+sBFIQH3UVNv5k8XqMIXKsrVgmn lRSolLmb1pivCEohIRXl4SgY9yzRnJT1OYHwgsNmEC5T9f019QjVPsDlGNwjqgqB S+Theb+pQzjOhqBziBkRUJqJbQTezHoMIq0xTn9j4VsvRObYNtkuuBQJv1wPRW72 SPJ53BLS3WkeKycbJw3TO9r4BQDPoKetYTE6JctRaG3pSG9VC4pcs2vrXRWmLhVX QUb0V9Kwl9unD5lnN17dXbaU3x9Dc2pF62ZAExgNYfuCV/pTJmc= =bbBm -----END PGP SIGNATURE-----

Note that you should be able to utilize the automatic updater in the GUI that was recently added. A pop-up will appear with the new binary.
In case you want to update manually, you ought to perform the following steps:
1. Download the new binaries (the .zip file (Windows) or the tar.bz2 file (Mac OS X and Linux)) from the direct download links in this thread or from the official website. If you run active AV (AntiVirus) software, I'd recommend to apply this guide -> https://monero.stackexchange.com/questions/10798/my-antivirus-av-software-blocks-quarantines-the-monero-gui-wallet-is-there
2. Extract the new binaries (the .zip file (Windows) or the tar.bz2 file (Mac OS X and Linux) you just downloaded) to a new directory / folder of your liking.
3. Open monero-wallet-gui. It should automatically load your "old" wallet.
If, for some reason, the GUI doesn't automatically load your old wallet, you can open it as follows:
[1] On the second page of the wizard (first page is language selection) choose Open a wallet from file
[2] Now select your initial / original wallet. Note that, by default, the wallet files are located in Documents\Monero\ (Windows), Users//Monero/ (Mac OS X), or home//Monero/ (Linux).
Lastly, note that a blockchain resync is not needed, i.e., it will simply pick up where it left off.

You ought to perform the following steps:
1. Download the new binaries (the .zip file (Windows) or the tar.bz2 file (Mac OS X and Linux)) from the official website, the direct download links in this thread, or Github.
2. Extract the new binaries to a new directory of your liking.
3. Copy over the wallet files from the old directory (i.e. the v0.15.x.x or v0.16.0.x directory).
4. Start monerod and monero-wallet-cli (in case you have to use your wallet).
Note that a blockchain resync is not needed. Thus, if you open monerod-v0.16.0.3, it will simply pick up where it left off.

# Release notes (GUI)

• macOS app is now notarized by Apple
• CMake improvments
• Add support for IPv6 remote nodes
• Add command history to Logs page
• Add "Donate to Monero" button
• Indicate probability of finding a block on Mining page
• Minor bug fixes
Note that you can find a full change log here.

# Release notes (CLI)

• DoS fixes
• Add option to print daily coin emission and fees in monero-blockchain-stats
• Minor bug fixes
Note that you can find a full change log here.

# Further remarks

• A guide on pruning can be found here.
• Ledger Monero users, please be aware that version 1.6.0 of the Ledger Monero App is required in order to properly use CLI or GUI v0.16.

# Guides on how to get started (GUI)

https://github.com/monero-ecosystem/monero-GUI-guide/blob/mastemonero-GUI-guide.md
Older guides: (These were written for older versions, but are still somewhat applicable)
Sheep’s Noob guide to Monero GUI in Tails
https://medium.com/@Electricsheep56/the-monero-gui-wallet-broken-down-in-plain-english-bd2889b8c202

# Ledger GUI guides:

How do I generate a Ledger Monero wallet with the GUI (monero-wallet-gui)?
How do I restore / recreate my Ledger Monero wallet?

# Trezor GUI guides:

How do I generate a Trezor Monero wallet with the GUI (monero-wallet-gui)?
How to use Monero with Trezor - by Trezor
How do I restore / recreate my Trezor Monero wallet?

# Guides to resolve common issues (GUI)

My antivirus (AV) software blocks / quarantines the Monero GUI wallet, is there a work around I can utilize?
I am missing (not seeing) a transaction to (in) the GUI (zero balance)
Transaction stuck as “pending” in the GUI
How do I move the blockchain (data.mdb) to a different directory during (or after) the initial sync without losing the progress?
I am using the GUI and my daemon doesn't start anymore
My GUI feels buggy / freezes all the time
The GUI uses all my bandwidth and I can't browse anymore or use another application that requires internet connection
How do I change the language of the 25 word mnemonic seed in the GUI or CLI?
I am using remote node, but the GUI still syncs blockchain?

# Using the GUI with a remote node

In the wizard, you can either select Simple mode or Simple mode (bootstrap) to utilize this functionality. Note that the GUI developers / contributors recommend to use Simple mode (bootstrap) as this mode will eventually use your own (local) node, thereby contributing to the strength and decentralization of the network. Lastly, if you manually want to set a remote node, you ought to use Advanced mode. A guide can be found here:
https://www.getmonero.org/resources/user-guides/remote_node_gui.html

# Adding a new language to the GUI

https://github.com/monero-ecosystem/monero-translations/blob/masteweblate.md
If, after reading all these guides, you still require help, please post your issue in this thread and describe it in as much detail as possible. Also, feel free to post any other guides that could help people.
submitted by dEBRUYNE_1 to Monero [link] [comments]

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##### [META] The Rules and their Entirety

These are the rules, everything that pertains to everyone who wishes to make any sort of interaction within this sub. Per the last META, clarity has been given in regards to bulk-type sales. Since EVERYTHING is here for you all to read, we expect there to be less issues with rule infractions and general confusion as to what’s acceptable, and what isn’t. We devote our time and energy for this sub to continuously never reach a balance amongst the users.
Our goal is to ensure the subreddit itself sticks around, along with trying to keep the userbase from being taken advantage of. Our rules make sense to some, and none to others but they serve a purpose. Regardless of how you feel, these are the rules and it is expected they be followed. At the time this post becomes visible, all of what’s listed below will be enforced as a hard rule, no more wrist slaps or babysitting.

# Reporting Rules

Here are the Subreddit Reportable violations. Violating these rules will get you a ban.

# Reddit Rules:

Reddit Rules regarding Firearms
No firearm sales. No Ammunition sales. No primers or gunpowder, as they are considered explosives.
No selling or distributing of files related to 3D printed firearms.
If you have no idea what this is referring to, please educate yourself before posting anything related to 3D printing files by reading up on them at the following websites:
Firearms: A Firearm is considered the serialized receiver or assembly of a working firearm. If you are unsure if an item is prohibited, contact the mods prior to posting it.
80% lowers and completion kits are not included in this prohibition as they are not firearms yet.
Bump-Stocks are considered Machine Guns by the ATF and are therefore prohibited from trading on the sub.
Binary Triggers, Cranks, and Rubber bands and other such items are not (currently) affected by this prohibition (unless Admins change their minds later).
Explosives & Hazmat: Gunpowder and Live Primers are considered as explosives and Hazardous Materials and are therefore prohibited from trade.
Ammunition: Reddit Admins use the ATF definition of ammunition which is as follows:
The term “Ammunition” means ammunition or cartridge cases, primers, bullets, or propellant powder designed for use in any firearm. The term shall not include (a) any shotgun shot or pellet not designed for use as the single, complete projectile load for one shotgun hull or casing, nor (b) any unloaded, non-metallic shotgun hull or casing not having a primer. 27 § 478.11
Brass and projectiles posted here will result in an immediate suspension by Reddit Admins, so if we find it first we will remove it.
Any violation of these above rules will result in a ban by us, or a site-wide suspension by Admins and their Anti-Evil goosesteppers.
Anyone attempting to skirt Reddit Rules will be given a 7 day ban on the first offense, a 30 day ban on the second offense, and a permaban thereafter due to the fact that Admins will use the bad behavior of a few to justify shutting down the sub for good.

# Posting Rules:

This sub is for private sales only. Vendors must post in Gundeals or GunAccessoryVendors
The limit on bulk sales/bulk items is 10, that means 10 of the same individual item can be posted for sale or trade. If you have 10 Geissele triggers, but only 4 are flat and 6 are curved, that will still count as 10, as they're the same branded trigger and likely purchased at the same time. If there are 3 OD Green items and 7 FDE that are otherwise the same item, that still count as 10. If you post 10 items of the same in one day, 10 the next, and 10 the following day after that, that will be viewed as vendor activity. To keep such things from happening, it will be limited to one sale of this type, per user, per week. The ONLY EXCEPTION to this rule is old magazines, as it is common for users to purge off part of their mag collection.
Please follow these rules when creating a listing: Prefix your title with the transaction type:
[WTS] - Want To Sell
[WTB] - Want To Buy
[WTT] - Want To Trade
[GIFT] - Gun It Forward Tactically
Suffix your title with your state (e.g. (GA) or (NY)). This will help incentivize local sales and could impact shipping costs. Also, it could affect legality of some items such as magazines and those accessories deemed as "assault weapon" parts by certain states.
Postings should all follow this general format as an example: "[WTS] M16A2 Carry Handle - $60 (VA)". If you do not list the price in the title, ensure that it is listed in the comments. Include a Dollar sign ($) or the bot will remove it.
Postings without a price value may be removed after a period of time. WTB posts require valid offering prices, and will be removed if they do not have one.
Postings with prices such as "$1 for the bot" or "$1,000,000 for the bot" that are intended to bypass our rules and automated removal system instead of posting a valid price, will be removed and a temporary ban will be issued immediately.
Postings without pictures will be removed immediately, unless these posts are WTB.
Do not post an item for sale if you do not have it in your possession at the time of posting. This includes an item you may have purchased elsewhere, you decided you don’t want it and it’s on its way to you, but it has yet to arrive. If you don’t have it, don’t post it.
If you post stock images of an item in your WTS/WTT post, that will result in a temp ban if it is your first time doing so, possibly permanent if done on multiple occasions. If you post images of someone else’s photos for “your” item, this will be viewed as scamming tactics and you will receive a permaban, immediately.
If you drop your price, use the Price Drop/NSFW Tag. If your items sell, use the Complete/Spoiler tag. Please don't delete the price of an item if it sells, because that can be used by people in the future to gauge what similar items may be worth.
If your post does not receive the traction you're wanting, refrain from reposting within a 24 hour time frame. You may repost after the 24 hours has passed, and a price drop is not required, but encouraged. Deleting your post and reposting afterwards is viewed as trying to evade this rule. It will be met with removal and a temp ban, possibly longer if done more than once.
Want to Buy/Sell/Trade (WTB/WTS/WTT): These transactions all require a price value for the item. If a listing does not include a price it may be removed and re-listed once it is in compliance. Giving an unrealistic price to avoid this rule will be treated as a rule violation. Examples of this are "WTB scope, $1" or "WTT Upper,$9999". Additionally, you must list what you are looking for in [WTT] posts. Fielding offers, testing the waters or any other post attempt to try and skirt this rule will result in the post being removed.
Accounts with 5 or less flair (you must have at least 6) on GAFS are NOT eligible to participate in giveaways, due to users from other subs coming to win stuff without ever participating in GAFS, or GAFS users making multiple new burner accounts to enter giveaways.
New accounts (under 30 days of age) are not able to create WTS or WTT ads, nor should they offer things for sale in the comments of other peoples' posts. To prevent scams, new users can only post Want to Buy threads. If you want to attempt to bypass this account age requirement, you must be able to provide moderators evidence of a good trading history on another reputable online forum, such as Calgunner or AR15.com where you can show a longstanding history of positive trade feedback. If this is completed, moderators may provide an exception and allow WTS/WTT posts to be submitted by new users, with a warning caveat to any potential buyers to avoid using risky payment methods until the seller has had a chance to develop a positive trading reputation.
Any new accounts that utilize this subreddit that create names that are similar to a mods (i.e. sxbbzxro, sxbzxxro, subzxro, etc.) may be removed from participating here due to the possibility of confusing/having the ability to manipulate users into thinking they are in fact a mod.
Price Checks (PC): Because PC listings were abused by many to bypass the price rule, fish for "best offers", and otherwise snipe sales, they have been disabled after overwhelming support from the community.
We have a feedback system in place. The current month's flair thread is On the Sidebar, and is usually Stickied at the top as well. Check there for the specific directions. DO NOT create a thread for a sale that has already happened, or has happened in a different sub/website/forum etc. The Flair system is only for feedback for exchanges in /GAFS. Any attempts to game the flair system will be seen as an attempt to establish trust for scam purposes, and will be banned accordingly.
Law Enforcement: Be aware, we do not offer exemptions to any individuals who may have LE credentials. Due to the difficulty of verifying employment, possible job changes, leaving/termination from said job, etc. we treat all users as civilians. Any local and federal laws apply to all individuals who utilize this subreddit. Read up and stay up-to-date on these laws and regulations, you will be expected to know and abide by them. Failure to do so may lead to a ban.
External Sales:
NO LINKS to your external sales on TacSwap, eBay, Facebook, Armslist, Gunbroker, etc. Sales in multiple locations are allowed, but don't just provide a link to sale elsewhere. Make your listing here. The only caveat to these rules is to show a price point elsewhere if someone here has an item that is grossly overpriced, or is looking for an item.
This sub is not a "highest bid gets the item" format. There are also no lotteries for items i.e. 10 chances at $10 each to purchase a$75 flashlight with a random number generated to pick the winner.
High Value or Counterfeit Items:
To deter the sale of counterfeit products, any item that is serialized must have a picture of the serial. As firearms are not allowed for sale here, this shouldn't present a privacy issue to anyone. This policy covers items such as EOTechs, Aimpoints, Trijicons, etc. Along with this, if you're selling anything that's "new-in-box", you must unseal it and show the contents of said box/package.
No Stolen Property. If you are selling a knockoff item, indicate that fact. Items such as bipods, BUIS, flashlights, holsters, and scopes/optics are known to have some gray market options. KAC USMC Stamped Rear Sights are not stolen property and are allowed on here, unless another member can provide proof from a DoD source that they are in fact considered stolen government property.
All GAFS logos, icons, banners and visual content related to this subreddit, belong to the moderator team. Do not create/manufacture/produce items with this content onto itself. It is forbidden to profit off the GAFS name, unless discussed with the modteam in advance and given permission.

# Shipping/Insurance Rules:

The official policy is for the mods to not get involved with issues regarding lost packages, provided that the parties can prove it was actually lost. If you feel like insurance should be added to your transaction, please take care to add that before finalizing terms.

# General Rules:

WARNING: Be aware of all state and federal laws that apply to you and any parties involved in a firearms-related transaction. You are responsible for knowing and following the law. This Subreddit and its staff are in no way responsible for informing you of the law, but will make every effort to do so. As a buyer, be familiar with your state/county/city rules. As a seller, do not knowingly sell prohibited items to areas that have laws against your items, such as certain capacity magazines. Any person, buyer, or seller, who knowingly solicits a trade that is illegal for them may be subject to a ban.
Respect all federal and local laws for any transaction you take part in. This includes federal drug laws. Drug activity tied to your account tied to any other issues is sufficient grounds for banning. Here is the ATF Letter that explains why any suspected drug activity, including marijuana, is grounds for immediate banning from the sub. Illegal gun activity such as unregistered SBRs, AOWs, destructive devices, DIAS or lightning links in your reddit profile (in or outside the sub) can be reason for banning. Do not spread bad information regarding laws.
Any item you post for sale is expected to be in your current possession. If this is not the case, you must specify this in the listing. Circumstances such as selling for a friend is allowed, but pictures of your items are required to be shared to the public. You do not need an imgur.com account in order to host pictures of your item on imgur, so that is not an excuse.
If you are scammed, inform the mods as soon as you can so that we may investigate and ban the offending parties if necessary.
Do not post the personal information of any Reddit users. The exception to this is if someone uses PayPal to scam a member, this information may be sent to the mods to prevent others from also being scammed. Doxxing people will not be tolerated.
Do not antagonize posters about their price, opinion, or sexual orientation (etc). This translates to be a general rule of "no dickish behavior". If you disagree with someone's price, and can post evidence that their item has a current or recent better price elsewhere such as a link to a vendor, that information is authorized to be posted. That is not antagonism. People may comment on prices and offer counter-offers, as long as behavior is not insulting or unprofessional. If you feel that someone is being unprofessional regarding pricing, report it and the mods will evaluate the case. They are the determining factor whether behavior warrants muting, temporary banning, or permanent banning based on severity of incident, past behavior, and other factors. If your behavior does not contribute towards the positive image of firearms ownership, your participation in this subreddit may not be welcome.
Soliciting any type of transaction regarding prohibited items may result in a ban. This includes Price Checks of firearms and other prohibited items, as this can be seen as an attempt to garner PM offers for prohibited items. Remember that there is no expectation of privacy from Reddit Admins, and that they have shown in the past that they have access to private message histories.
As a general guideline, if a buyer wants to use PayPal Goods and Services (G&S) rather than Friends and family (F&F), it is expected that they will absorb the ~3% fee for the increased protections. However, PayPal F&F, Zelle, and Venmo and similar payment methods are discouraged here due to a lack of protections.
All rules and guidelines are subject to change. The moderators have the final say in all issues in relation to the rules and how to enforce them.
submitted by SxbZxro to GunAccessoriesForSale [link] [comments]

##### A guide on hitting Legend in Comp

Crossposting this from /crucibleplaybook, figured some people on here might find this helpful as well. A lot of this post applies to all Comp, not just hitting Legend.
I’ve been seeing a lot of posts lately asking for tips for hitting Legend in Comp so I figured I’d put together a brief guide for anyone that’s interested. I’m happy to see so many people interested in hitting Legend!
Intro
First off, a little bit about me. I never played D1 so I had a rough first few months of D2Y1 (and a rough first few weeks of Y2 with the new special weapon uptime and TTK) as it was my first time with the Destiny franchise. But even then had a blast in Crucible and I always wanted to get better. I’m also an extremely competitive person so that helped fuel my desire for improvement.
I play on Xbox and I just got my Unbroken title this season so I’ve been to Legend 3 times (S4, S6, S7). I’ve learned a ton along the way and hitting Legend each season has been easier and more enjoyable than the previous one for a variety of reasons that I’ll share in this post.
Improvement Mindset
While your end goal is to hit Legend, focusing on this binary goal isn’t a good idea. A better approach is to think of playing Comp with the main goal of improving both as a player and a team. With this more open and long-term mindset, you will improve rapidly as a player, win more often, and have a much more enjoyable experience as a result.
When you focus on something as binary as hitting a certain rank, every game or even decision within a game starts to feel tense and you put an immense amount of artificial pressure on yourself. This often builds over the course of a game. Even if it’s subconscious, it will effect your play. You’ll play too passive, too aggressive, and/or make bad decisions. Your brain will be too wrapped up playing out the consequences of failure to focus on what you should be doing to give yourself and your team the best chances of winning. It’s been scientifically proven both in real sports and in E-Sports that tension leads to poor performance.
Instead, take every engagement and every game as an opportunity to learn something and to improve. You WILL start getting your ass kicked at some point, it’s just a matter of when. It might be at 3k and it might not be until 5k, but at some point it’ll happen. And when it does, the best thing to do is to record your gameplay and watch it back.
Gameplay Review
You can easily record your gameplay via Twitch by streaming and having it save past broadcasts. Then you can watch your gameplay there, or you can take it a step further and download your gameplay and run it through a free video editing program such as DaVinci Resolve or iMovie. The advantage of doing it this way is you can better control the playback and even view it frame-by-frame.
I’d recommend picking a game that you performed poorly and watch it once all the way through and take some mental notes. Then I’d watch it again, noting each death with why you died and what you could have done better to either kill your opponent first or escape safely. Even if you died to a Wardcliff or a solo super, write down something you could have done differently to prevent dying. Then categorize and tally them the best you can. The most frequent ones are what you should focus on getting better at. This can be during your next Comp session or QP/Rumble.
The reason reviewing your gameplay is so important is it’ll help speed up your rate of improvement and help you get past your current plateau a bit faster. Games in high comp tend to be very fast paced so it can be hard to think about or remember exactly what happened. Or what you think happened in the moment wasn’t what really happened and the gameplay review will show you this.
While it’s certainly possible to improve naturally and over time, recording and reviewing your gameplay will make you improve faster.
Playing the meta
A lot of people seem reluctant to use meta loadouts for whatever reason. I think most of it boils down to either wanting to be unique, or having a superiority complex by refusing to use certain good or easy to use weapons and strategies because they’re “cheap” or too easy. Throw all of this out the window.
There’s nothing cheap in Comp (other than DDoSing which is actual cheating and we won’t discuss it). There’s nothing that takes “no skill” to use. If it’s in the game then it’s fair game to be used as much and as effectively as possible. Everything has a counter. If you don’t believe this then you probably have a scrub mentality and it’s going to hold you back. There are some great posts about scrub mentality on this very sub.
Meta loadouts or weapons are usually the perfect cross section of both lethality and ease-of-use - USE THEM. This is the time and the place. Your opponents are trying to win at all costs and so should you.
I don’t want to go too much into detail here or debate here, but in general these are the best options for high comp on Console (4k+). They’re ranked in terms of effectiveness, so it’s probably better to improve with something at the top of the list than use something at the bottom.
Primary Weapons: * Luna (NF if you have it already) * Adaptive or Aggressive pulse rifles * Ace/Thorn/TLW * Very well rolled Legendary HC * Jade Rabbit/Mida/Polaris Lance (large maps only)
Special Weapons: * Aggressive or Precision frame Shotgun (MindbendeToil/Imperial Decree/DRB/Retold Tale) * Erentil or Wizened Rebuke * Beloved/Twilight Oath/Supremacy/Revoker
Heavy Weapons: * Wardcliff * Truth * PotG * Any rocket launcher
Subclasses: * Hunter - middle void, middle or bottom arc * Titan - bottom void or bottom arc * Warlock - top arc or bottom solar
Exotics: * Stompees for Hunter * OEM or Antaeus Wards for Titan * Transversive Steps for Warlock
Mods: * 3+ super mods * 1-2 paragon mods for hunter if desired * 1-2 grenade mods for stormcaller or sentinel if desired * Otherwise 5 super mods
Stats: * Minimum of 1 resilience with as little as possible (Titans min is 3 or 4 I think). The rest goes to mobility and/or recovery. I’d recommend 6+ mobility for most people, but some prefer a lower mobility and higher recovery.
I don’t really want to debate what else is meta or what’s the best or other specifics. But in my experience both playing and watching others play high comp, this is the meta.
For weapons, Luna and a shotgun is still the best and most versatile loadout for most people and most maps. Consider swapping to a pulse or scout instead of Luna (or a sniper instead of a shotgun) for larger maps. Especially for countdown, consider having at least one sniper on your team as being able to get a pick and play 4v3 puts your team at a huge advantage. Fusion rifles are also incredibly strong right now. You can basically treat one like your primary weapon and just use your actual primary to clean people up or shoot people past ~30m.
In the current meta supers are incredibly important. You want to use them frequently and make orbs for your teammates for them to pick up and vice versa. Try to use your super when the enemy team doesn’t have any supers ready or heavy ammo is about to be up. Coordinate with your teammates on who’s popping a super and when so you don’t double pop and your teammates can get heavy, map control, and shoot the enemies running away from you.
I’ve gotten some questions on why so little resilience so I’ll answer it here. You’re going to die to supers, heavy ammo, and special weapons a lot more than primaries. Your resilience won’t really matter against those things. Plus the primaries you do see in high comp (mostly NF) don’t get effected by resilience. And even the other ones that you’ll occasionally see, resilience doesn’t really change the TTK, it only requires more headshots instead of body shots. At this level most players will be hitting their headshots anyways. Resilience was much more important in Y1 when there was a lot of primary weapon uptime.
The only time I’d recommend a higher resilience is if you’re on a Titan with OEM (to supplement recovery) and prefer low mobility. 7+ resilience will cause Erentil to take 5 bolts instead of 4 and might occasionally make a shotgun need to hit an extra pellet out of the spread to kill you (10 pellets of the 12, instead of 9 of 12 for example), among a couple of other minor advantages. I still wouldn’t really recommend it as I think you get more overall usage out of high recovery, but I’ve seen some people in high comp make it work.
Controlling heavy ammo wins games. Titans can use their barricade to pull heavy even while the other team is laning it. Prioritize getting the heavy and preventing your opponents from getting it. Once you get it, use it and don’t die with it. I’d recommend using it quickly but if you’re running Wardcliff it’s not a bad idea to save a rocket for an opponents super.
Finding Teammates
One of the most important parts of hitting Legend is having quality teammates. And by quality I mean both skill and temperament. Unless you already have a large friends list filled with quality teammates, you’ll need to network to find some. You can do this both in-game and using LFG. You can solo queue with a decent amount of success until about 3.5k or so, then you’ll want to start forming a team. If you seem to gel with teammates when solo queuing, shoot them a message and ask if they’d like to team up.
As far as LFG goes, there are lots of LFG websites these days. I’ve personally had a lot of success with Xbox’s built in LFG system. LFG can get a bad rep at times which is understandable. Some people are toxic, can tilt easily, blame teammates, complain all the time, not very skilled, etc. You obviously want to avoid these types of people and instead find teammates that are skilled, chill, encouraging and fun to play with. The best way to do this is to host the LFG group yourself by making the post and weeding people out. I’m not going to debate if/how important KD is to determine someone’s skill and if/what minimum you should ask for, use your own discretion here.
Once you get a team, just start playing. It might take a game or two for everyone to start to feel more comfortable with one another based on playstyles, tendencies, personalities, communication, etc. If things are going well after 4 or 5 games, keep playing. If they keep going well, add them to your friends list and ask them to do the same. If the games are not going well, you don’t seem to be playing together well as a team, and/or your personalities don’t seem to fit, consider politely excusing yourself and forming a new group. There’s absolutely nothing wrong with doing this. Sometimes the team is just not a good fit for whatever reason, it’s best for everyone to just move on with no hard feelings.
And by games going well I don’t necessarily mean winning. Are you guys teamshotting well? Baiting and switching effectively? Controlling the power ammo? Timing super usage? Moving together as a team? Playing complimentary angels and watching each other’s back? All of these things are good signs of a team working well. One of the best indicators is the number of assists you’re getting as a team (these can be looked up on any 3rd party website).
If your team is playing well together over a long session, like I said, add them and ask if they’ll do the same. Next time you get on, ask if they want to play before looking for a group via LFG. Sometimes they’ll even have friends that want to play as well which is great! Add anyone and everyone you play well with and seem to be on the same page with both in-game and personality wise. Rinse and repeat and you’ll have a solid list of friends to play Comp with. If you keep networking you can grow your friends list very quickly and effectively. You can also use Discord to schedule comp sessions.
The best way to attract good teammates is to be the best teammate you can. Be the teammate that you’d want on your team every single game and make things easy on your teammates. Hype them up for making good plays and encourage them if they make a bad one. Team shoot, make good callouts, don’t tilt, etc. Anything you’d look for in a good teammate, try to do that yourself and you’ll attract some great people to play with.
Always warm up before playing Comp and make sure your teammates have too. Rumble or QP is fine, but even a quick 10 minute private match rumble with your comp team can help warm up and build some camaraderie.
Closing Thoughts
Reaching Legend in Comp is seen by most as a daunting task and not how it should be seen - a huge accomplishment. Most people won’t even attempt to try for a variety of reasons ranging from pride to not enough reward to time and effort. High Comp is very challenging and honestly a much different game than QP or low Comp. It can be frustrating and stressful. But if you think of it as playing to improve and become the best player you can instead of just hitting Legend, then it’ll be very well worth it. Drastically improving as a player and as a result eventually hitting Legend is by far the best feeling in the entire game.
You might not even get there this season but that’s okay! But by having an improvement mindset and improving as a player, you’ll have a leg up next season - just stick with it and you’ll get there.
My final parting piece of advice is to just enjoy the journey. You’ll lose some close games and you’ll win some close games. You’ll get blown out by streamers or recovs and you’ll surprise yourself and beat some teams that are much better than you. Don’t sweat any of the losses, just enjoy playing the game. At the end of the day, this is a video game that we all play for fun.
One thing to keep in mind, especially once you get past 5k and are making that final push, you’re playing against some of the best players in the world and many of them play Comp for a living or it’s literally all they do. For most of us this is just one of many hobbies that we do for fun in our spare time, so don’t get too upset when you lose to these teams.
Thanks for reading - good luck and have fun! I’d be happy to answer any questions that anybody has.
Cheers!
submitted by Keetonicc to DestinyTheGame [link] [comments]

##### Factorio Multi Assembler

What do you want this factory to produce? Yes.
Multi Assembler in current multiplayer session

# tl;dr;

I wanted to tinker around with the microcontroller mod and i "hate" the pre robotics gameplay when it comes to non bulk recipes (laser turrets, production buildings, specialized ammo...), handcrafting is slow, automation is tedious - so i engineered an factory design to produce virtually any recipe dynamically.

# Demo Video

The production queue can be seen on the right with Q being the number of recipes queued at the moment.
https://streamable.com/ygnvs0

# How does it work?

This screenshot provides an overview of the mostly vanilla proof of concept, only the microcontroller mod and the recipe combinator mod are required here.
Subsystem Overview
Resource provider
Source of raw resources (Iron, Wood...)
Multi Assembler
Dynamic assemblers with one microcontroller and two recipe combinators each, one reading the assemblers status, the other one setting the recipe delivered by the microcontroller, which in turn gets the recipe from the "wanted recipes" red signal network connecting the different subsystems.
Multi Assembler Microcontroller Code explained
• See linked factorio forum post
Possible improvements / features
• Avoid the "180 tick do while" and react to events instead, eg. inserter read hand content
• Invert the sorting logic, removing the "set 2000" part in the code and making the red assembler network semantically more logical "the higher the signal the more i want this recipe"
Quirks and remarks
• An mostly vanilla build as shown in the PoC above is not feasible for larger quantities, but should be possible if combined with techniques like sushi belting and increasing the initial delay of the "do while". This is not covered in the demo map as i am using the warehouse mod to work around this.
Recipe Logic
Defines what recipes can be produced based on the given resources and the recipes configured in the "production targets" constant combinators.In essence this subsystem will emit a constant signal of "1" for each recipe which a.) should and b.) can be produced to the red multi assembler network.
At the moment this subsystem is rather basic and can be improved upon (see quirks and remarks).
Recipe Logic Microcontroller Code (TOP) explained
• See linked factorio forum post
Possible improvements / features
• Add configurable recipe priorities aka "I want laser turrets before walls, and belts before everything else"
• Better recipe priorities based on recipe complexity / production targets, "I want 5 assemblers to produce cables needed in bulk for circuits, while i only want one assembler at max producing power armor"
• Possible solution: Calculate the priority based on the distance to the production target. The higher the difference between production target and in stock items, the lower the signal to the red multi assembler network.
Quirks and remarks
• If intermediate products go missing or cannot be produced (say you manually provide blue circuits, and remove them again after an recipe with blue circuits was added to the production queue), the recipe will be stuck indefinitely in the production queue. In order to solve this, simply reset the cache combinator of this subsystem.
• Items with large stack sizes may lead to problems if the steel chest contains less than (number of assemblers * item stack size + 1). That's because the assemblers will "eat up" all the resources of the steel chest, which in turn leads to the system thinking no resources of this type are available, and thus aborting the production.
• Slow raw resource input or intermediate recipe production will lead to an slow flipping binary state of "I can produce this higher tier recipe" and "I no longer have enough resources for this recipe", ultimately this is a resource input problem, but it could be handled in a more graceful way for other queued recipes.
• Depending on the setup, production targets are not hit exactly because of an production target evaluation delay when checking if the recipe should still be produced, in some cases this leads to overproduction.
Production Target Constant Combinators
Add the recipes you want the Multi Assembler to produce here. The quantity defines the production target.
Missing Resource Indicator
Will flash red if any resources required to produce an recipe are missing in the steel chest of the multi assembler.The missing resources are shown as positive values in the combinator to the right of the flashing light.
Production Queue Visualizer
Optional component, simply visualizes the amount of the currently queued recipes.

See my post at https://forums.factorio.com/viewtopic.php?f=8&t=85141
I am new to reddit and couldn't figure out an way to post them here without adding way to many lines to this post, maybe someone can enlighten me if there is some kind of "single line code" option?
PS: I am not a native speaker, if you need clarification on some parts feel free to ask.
submitted by heximal2A to factorio [link] [comments]

##### A guide on hitting Legend rank in Comp

I’ve been seeing a lot of posts lately asking for tips for hitting Legend in Comp so I figured I’d put together a brief guide for anyone that’s interested. I’m happy to see so many people interested in hitting Legend! A lot of this post applies to comp in general, not necessarily just hitting Legend.
Intro
First off, a little bit about me. I never played D1 so I had a rough first few months of D2Y1 (and a rough first few weeks of Y2 with the new special weapon uptime and TTK) as it was my first time with the Destiny franchise. But even then had a blast in Crucible and I always wanted to get better. I’m also an extremely competitive person so that helped fuel my desire for improvement.
I play on Xbox and I just got my Unbroken title this season so I’ve been to Legend 3 times (S4, S6, S7). I’ve learned a ton along the way and hitting Legend each season has been easier and more enjoyable than the previous one for a variety of reasons that I’ll share in this post.
Improvement Mindset
While your end goal is to hit Legend, focusing on this binary goal isn’t a good idea. A better approach is to think of playing Comp with the main goal of improving both as a player and a team. With this more open and long-term mindset, you will improve rapidly as a player, win more often, and have a much more enjoyable experience as a result.
When you focus on something as binary as hitting a certain rank, every game or even decision within a game starts to feel tense and you put an immense amount of artificial pressure on yourself. This often builds over the course of a game. Even if it’s subconscious, it will effect your play. You’ll play too passive, too aggressive, and/or make bad decisions. Your brain will be too wrapped up playing out the consequences of failure to focus on what you should be doing to give yourself and your team the best chances of winning. It’s been scientifically proven both in real sports and in E-Sports that tension leads to poor performance.
Instead, take every engagement and every game as an opportunity to learn something and to improve. You WILL start getting your ass kicked at some point, it’s just a matter of when. It might be at 3k and it might not be until 5k, but at some point it’ll happen. And when it does, the best thing to do is to record your gameplay and watch it back.
Gameplay Review
You can easily record your gameplay via Twitch by streaming and having it save past broadcasts. Then you can watch your gameplay there, or you can take it a step further and download your gameplay and run it through a free video editing program such as DaVinci Resolve or iMovie. The advantage of doing it this way is you can better control the playback and even view it frame-by-frame.
I’d recommend picking a game that you performed poorly and watch it once all the way through and take some mental notes. Then I’d watch it again, noting each death with why you died and what you could have done better to either kill your opponent first or escape safely. Even if you died to a Wardcliff or a solo super, write down something you could have done differently to prevent dying. Then categorize and tally them the best you can. The most frequent ones are what you should focus on getting better at. This can be during your next Comp session or QP/Rumble.
The reason reviewing your gameplay is so important is it’ll help speed up your rate of improvement and help you get past your current plateau a bit faster. Games in high comp tend to be very fast paced so it can be hard to think about or remember exactly what happened. Or what you think happened in the moment wasn’t what really happened and the gameplay review will show you this.
While it’s certainly possible to improve naturally and over time, recording and reviewing your gameplay will make you improve faster.
Playing the meta
A lot of people seem reluctant to use meta loadouts for whatever reason. I think most of it boils down to either wanting to be unique, or having a superiority complex by refusing to use certain good or easy to use weapons and strategies because they’re “cheap” or too easy. Throw all of this out the window.
There’s nothing cheap in Comp (other than DDoSing which is actual cheating and we won’t discuss it). There’s nothing that takes “no skill” to use. If it’s in the game then it’s fair game to be used as much and as effectively as possible. Everything has a counter. If you don’t believe this then you probably have a scrub mentality and it’s going to hold you back. There are some great posts about scrub mentality on this very sub.
Meta loadouts or weapons are usually the perfect cross section of both lethality and ease-of-use - USE THEM. This is the time and the place. Your opponents are trying to win at all costs and so should you.
I don’t want to go too much into detail here or debate here, but in general these are the best options for high comp on Console (4k+). They’re ranked in terms of effectiveness, so it’s probably better to improve with something at the top of the list than use something at the bottom.
Primary Weapons: * Luna (NF if you have it already) * Adaptive or Aggressive pulse rifles * Ace/Thorn/TLW * Very well rolled Legendary HC * Jade Rabbit/Mida/Polaris Lance (large maps only)
Special Weapons: * Aggressive or Precision frame Shotgun (MindbendeToil/Imperial Decree/DRB/Retold Tale) * Erentil or Wizened Rebuke * Beloved/Twilight Oath/Supremacy/Revoker
Heavy Weapons: * Wardcliff * Truth * PotG * Any rocket launcher
Subclasses: * Hunter - middle void, middle or bottom arc * Titan - bottom void or bottom arc * Warlock - top arc or bottom solar
Exotics: * Stompees for Hunter * OEM or Antaeus Wards for Titan * Transversive Steps for Warlock
Mods: * 3+ super mods * 1-2 paragon mods for hunter if desired * 1-2 grenade mods for stormcaller or sentinel if desired * Otherwise 5 super mods
Stats: * Minimum of 1 resilience with as little as possible (Titans min is 3 or 4 I think). The rest goes to mobility and/or recovery. I’d recommend 6+ mobility for most people, but some prefer a lower mobility and higher recovery.
I don’t really want to debate what else is meta or what’s the best or other specifics. But in my experience both playing and watching others play high comp, this is the meta.
For weapons, Luna and a shotgun is still the best and most versatile loadout for most people and most maps. Consider swapping to a pulse or scout instead of Luna (or a sniper instead of a shotgun) for larger maps. Especially for countdown, consider having at least one sniper on your team as being able to get a pick and play 4v3 puts your team at a huge advantage. Fusion rifles are also incredibly strong right now. You can basically treat one like your primary weapon and just use your actual primary to clean people up or shoot people past ~30m.
In the current meta supers are incredibly important. You want to use them frequently and make orbs for your teammates for them to pick up and vice versa. Try to use your super when the enemy team doesn’t have any supers ready or heavy ammo is about to be up. Coordinate with your teammates on who’s popping a super and when so you don’t double pop and your teammates can get heavy, map control, and shoot the enemies running away from you.
I’ve gotten some questions on why so little resilience so I’ll answer it here. You’re going to die to supers, heavy ammo, and special weapons a lot more than primaries. Your resilience won’t really matter against those things. Plus the primaries you do see in high comp (mostly NF) don’t get effected by resilience. And even the other ones that you’ll occasionally see, resilience doesn’t really change the TTK, it only requires more headshots instead of body shots. At this level most players will be hitting their headshots anyways. Resilience was much more important in Y1 when there was a lot of primary weapon uptime.
The only time I’d recommend a higher resilience is if you’re on a Titan with OEM (to supplement recovery) and prefer low mobility. 7+ resilience will cause Erentil to take 5 bolts instead of 4 and might occasionally make a shotgun need to hit an extra pellet out of the spread to kill you (10 pellets of the 12, instead of 9 of 12 for example), among a couple of other minor advantages. I still wouldn’t really recommend it as I think you get more overall usage out of high recovery, but I’ve seen some people in high comp make it work.
Controlling heavy ammo wins games. Titans can use their barricade to pull heavy even while the other team is laning it. Prioritize getting the heavy and preventing your opponents from getting it. Once you get it, use it and don’t die with it. I’d recommend using it quickly but if you’re running Wardcliff it’s not a bad idea to save a rocket for an opponents super.
Finding Teammates
One of the most important parts of hitting Legend is having quality teammates. And by quality I mean both skill and temperament. Unless you already have a large friends list filled with quality teammates, you’ll need to network to find some. You can do this both in-game and using LFG. You can solo queue with a decent amount of success until about 3.5k or so, then you’ll want to start forming a team. If you seem to gel with teammates when solo queuing, shoot them a message and ask if they’d like to team up.
As far as LFG goes, there are lots of LFG websites these days. I’ve personally had a lot of success with Xbox’s built in LFG system. LFG can get a bad rep at times which is understandable. Some people are toxic, can tilt easily, blame teammates, complain all the time, not very skilled, etc. You obviously want to avoid these types of people and instead find teammates that are skilled, chill, encouraging and fun to play with. The best way to do this is to host the LFG group yourself by making the post and weeding people out. I’m not going to debate if/how important KD is to determine someone’s skill and if/what minimum you should ask for, use your own discretion here.
Once you get a team, just start playing. It might take a game or two for everyone to start to feel more comfortable with one another based on playstyles, tendencies, personalities, communication, etc. If things are going well after 4 or 5 games, keep playing. If they keep going well, add them to your friends list and ask them to do the same. If the games are not going well, you don’t seem to be playing together well as a team, and/or your personalities don’t seem to fit, consider politely excusing yourself and forming a new group. There’s absolutely nothing wrong with doing this. Sometimes the team is just not a good fit for whatever reason, it’s best for everyone to just move on with no hard feelings.
And by games going well I don’t necessarily mean winning. Are you guys teamshotting well? Baiting and switching effectively? Controlling the power ammo? Timing super usage? Moving together as a team? Playing complimentary angels and watching each other’s back? All of these things are good signs of a team working well. One of the best indicators is the number of assists you’re getting as a team (these can be looked up on any 3rd party website).
If your team is playing well together over a long session, like I said, add them and ask if they’ll do the same. Next time you get on, ask if they want to play before looking for a group via LFG. Sometimes they’ll even have friends that want to play as well which is great! Add anyone and everyone you play well with and seem to be on the same page with both in-game and personality wise. Rinse and repeat and you’ll have a solid list of friends to play Comp with. If you keep networking you can grow your friends list very quickly and effectively. You can also use Discord to schedule comp sessions.
The best way to attract good teammates is to be the best teammate you can. Be the teammate that you’d want on your team every single game and make things easy on your teammates. Hype them up for making good plays and encourage them if they make a bad one. Team shoot, make good callouts, don’t tilt, etc. Anything you’d look for in a good teammate, try to do that yourself and you’ll attract some great people to play with.
Always warm up before playing Comp and make sure your teammates have too. Rumble or QP is fine, but even a quick 10 minute private match rumble with your comp team can help warm up and build some camaraderie.
Closing Thoughts
Reaching Legend in Comp is seen by most as a daunting task and not how it should be seen - a huge accomplishment. Most people won’t even attempt to try for a variety of reasons ranging from pride to not enough reward to time and effort. High Comp is very challenging and honestly a much different game than QP or low Comp. It can be frustrating and stressful. But if you think of it as playing to improve and become the best player you can instead of just hitting Legend, then it’ll be very well worth it. Drastically improving as a player and as a result eventually hitting Legend is by far the best feeling in the entire game.
You might not even get there this season but that’s okay! But by having an improvement mindset and improving as a player, you’ll have a leg up next season - just stick with it and you’ll get there.
My final parting piece of advice is to just enjoy the journey. You’ll lose some close games and you’ll win some close games. You’ll get blown out by streamers or recovs and you’ll surprise yourself and beat some teams that are much better than you. Don’t sweat any of the losses, just enjoy playing the game. At the end of the day, this is a video game that we all play for fun.
One thing to keep in mind, especially once you get past 5k and are making that final push, you’re playing against some of the best players in the world and many of them play Comp for a living or it’s literally all they do. For most of us this is just one of many hobbies that we do for fun in our spare time, so don’t get too upset when you lose to these teams.
Thanks for reading - good luck and have fun! I’d be happy to answer any questions that anybody has.
Cheers!
submitted by Keetonicc to CruciblePlaybook [link] [comments]

##### Survey about online dating

Are you over 18, out as non-binary and have tried online dating? Then please take my 15 min research survey.
My name is Kyle (they/them) and I’m a non-binary undergraduate student at Bowdoin college. I’m doing research on the experiences of out trans and non-binary people while online dating and I would love to have your input!
If you are interested in sharing your thoughts with me and want to be entered to win a $25 gift card please take my survey at: https://bowdoincollege.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_d0huHiLyk5MquR7 This survey will also ask you if you are interested in doing a follow up interview which is totally optional. If you really don't like surveys, but would be interested in just a 1 hour video interview about your feelings on online dating, go here instead https://bowdoincollege.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_cUy7rm2KxHEOs6N Those who I interview will be given a$10 gift card as a token of my appreciation.
If you have any questions, please feel free to send a dm!

Informed Consent Information
I am asking you to participate in a research study titled “Exploratory Research on the Experiences of Transgender and Non-Binary People Using Online Dating Services”. This study is being led by Kyle Putnam (They/Them), a student in the Sociology department at Bowdoin College. The Faculty Advisor for this study is Professor Theo Greene (He/Him) of the Sociology department at Bowdoin College.
What the study is about
The purpose of this research survey is to better understand the specific experiences of out transgender and non-binary people have while online dating. This research will ask you about what online dating platforms you have used, what experiences you have had while using them (both positive and negative), and what information about your gender you choose to share while online dating.
What we will ask you to do
Privacy/Confidentiality/Data Security
If you have questions
The main researcher conducting this study is Kyle Putnam (They/Them) an undergraduate student at Bowdoin College. If you have questions about this survey before, during, or after you take it, you may contact Kyle Putnam at [email protected]. If you have any questions or concerns regarding your rights as a subject in this study, you may contact the Institutional Review Board (IRB) Chair, Scott Sehon at (207)725-3753 or at [email protected]. If Professor Sehon is not available, you can contact the IRB Administrator Jean Harrison at (207)798-7056 or at [email protected].
submitted by EducationalDecision to NonBinary [link] [comments]

##### Where’s the best place to live in light of collapse?

Ok we are 323 comments in on the collapse post and 98% didn’t bother to make even a slightly thoughtful answer. So... i guess i will be the change i want to see in the world
First off, If you are the fatalistic nihlistic type you can just go where you think it will be nice to die, maybe that is with friends and family, maybe it is on a beach in mexico, or feeding your body to the last polar bear. For everyone else that still has the instinct and drive for self-preservation….
What are the best places to be leading up to or during collapse?

## First let's question the question.

What difference does it make to know "What are the best places to be leading up to or during collapse"?
The answer is dependent upon your own personal situation. Your personal situation has limiting factors.
• Imagine you are a goat herder in Somalia during a multi year drought and there is no grass for feeding your animals. You have to sell them for dirt cheap because everyone else is also trying to sell off everything they can to get money thus depressing the goat prices further. Now the price of food is skyrocketing because there is no grass and the farmers crops failed, everyone is trying to buy up a hoard of food because everyone knows it is going to be a hard year. You manage to get the equivalent of $120USD in cash after selling practically everything you own but held onto one breeding pair of your healthiest goats you plan to use to regain a livelihood after the drought is over. • Imagine you are a billionaire with a fueled up superyacht, a helicopter, and a private plane. You have practically unlimited money, friends who are rich and connected in other countries, and a whole slew of passports, visas, and secondary citizenships, all else failing you can buy citizenships in most countries for less than$2million investment and pay a teams of specialists to expedite the process.
Your personal Limiting Factors constrain you usually somewhere between those extremes, everyone has different options.
If we assume you are asking the question "What are the best places to be leading up to or during collapse" because you want to have the best standard of living available for as long as possible or simply survive the incoming population bottleneck, then the practical question becomes ...
"What are the best places to be, leading up to or during collapse, that i can get to, and establish myself in such a way that I can maintain the best standard of living possible for as long as I can or simply increase my probability of surviving the incoming population bottleneck."
It is important to ask this question to constrain the search space to the possible. It makes fuck-all difference if a somali goat herder knows about the ToP SeCret ElitE mULtibiLLioNaIre New ZEaLand sOUth IsLaNd ReDoUbt BuNkeR CoMmUnITy It is not going to help him and should not be in the search space as a survival strategy.
TL:DR Constrain your search space to what is realistically achievable for you.
1. Start with your baseline probability of survival and increase it.
2. Don't let a search for "best place" stop you from achieving "good enough place" or "better than where i was previously place".
3. You are just trying to be an early adopter of increasing your survival probability stats before the non collapse-pilled masses.
4. Think of surviving bottlenecks like surviving a charging bear attack, you don't need to be able to outrun the bear, you only need to be able to outrun the slowest people in the group up to the point the bear's appetite is satiated.
5. Remember working with others can leverage group synergies and massively increase the realistic capabilities, but this requires you establish social cohesion with sane cooperative people that have a similar goal orientation. /greencommunes
.............................................................................................................
What are the best places to be, leading up to or during collapse, that i can get to, and establish myself in such a way that I can maintain the best standard of living possible for as long as I can or simply increase my probability of surviving the incoming population bottleneck."

#### Ok now lets question the new question some more...

In order to answer this we need to untangle some of the subjective and objective elements.
The objective elements of human survival are well known.
• Air
• Water
• Food
• Clothing/ShelteTemperature maintenance
• Socialization/reproduction
Optimizing location is a series of subjective trade-offs. There is no perfect place, they all have advantages and disadvantages.
So you must decide your personal preference of which goods and bads you most desire and what your scenario expectations are of the future.
Your personal preferences and collapse expectations mean the “best area” is specific to you.
What you can achieve and what do you desire, find the overlap between the two, then do research to find the place that gives you the most goods with the least bads and increases your probability of survival and standard of living.
One of the best strategies is to adapt yourself to your local circumstances to take advantage of the advantages, and plan ahead to mitigate the disadvantages, it is really all most people can do for themselves.
Do you like not living in unbearable heat, maybe moving to greenland is NOT a better option than just buying 400watts of solar panels and attaching it to a small efficient AC that keeps one room of your house cool even during summer electricity blackouts. Most problems have multiple solutions, it is worth it to take time and think about things from an economic perspective and different time horizon perspectives.
Increasing your optionality is better than narrowing it when it comes to survival, rather than the binary thinking, of “go way out into the northern mountains, farm and live in a bunker” versus “be a full time yuppie and ignore collapse issues”. Getting 2 acres you can put a cheap used rv camper on and go do permaculture on during weekends, near enough your place of employment/where you live, is probably a better plan. Indeed the small dacha’s and country gardens helped many people survive the collapse of the USSR. They would spend weekends and haul potatoes/veggies back to the city with them on the bus. Hedge your bets to cover the most scenarios including the most likely scenarios like losing your job or getting in a car accident. Survival and thriving always has and always will involve dynamic adaptation.
Here is a very short list of some of potential trade-offs that you may need to think about and some brief descriptions of how they can affect things. This is NOT meant to be a systematic or exhaustive analysis, this is just me stream-of-conscious flowing on strong coffee to help others start thinking about it for themselves. There are unlimited variables
• Hot versus cold
• A lot of people in the forum think they it is somehow optimal for them to move to canada or greenland. Someone in eastern kansas moving to canada is not necessary, remember even in RCP8.5 business as usual scenario kansas by the end of the century still won’t be as hot as texas is currently. If there are already people living in hotter dryer areas now, then it doesn’t make a lot of sense to pack up your shit and move to the arctic, just enjoy the longer summers. At least base it on something scientific like the expectation of when that area will cross the 35C wetbulb survivability threshold, so if you live in Bandar Mahshahr then yes move somewhere else now is time.
• Do you have children?
• Moving somewhere may not be needed if you can live out your expected natural lifespan before things get too bad, especially with the climate. If you have children you may want to move to account for the expectations during their future lifetimes.
• Wet versus dry
• Wet places usually have more disease and insect loads for people and crops. In dry places it is harder to raise food, net primary productivity is usually lower, except where irrigation is available but there are usually less pests including plant fungal diseases like powdery mildew. There are Europeans living in certain parts of africa whom can only inhabit those areas currently because of antimalarial drugs, pesticides and mosquito nets. The native populations are full of people heterozygous for sickle cell which gives them resistance/immunity to the malaria, just a long view consideration.
• Seasonality of rainfall
• if you get all your rainfall in the summer you usually live in a region where the muggy wetbulb temps are higher and will be getting higher. You are more likely to get floods during the growing season. If you get rainfall mainly in the winter like mediteranean climates you will usually have dry summers with low humidity so deadly wetbulb temps should not be a problem but maintaining summer vegetables requires irrigation. If using rainfed agriculture you will have different crop choices, which areas grow the types of food you like?
• Sunny versus overcast
• Sunny areas are great for some dark skinned people and needed for vitamin D production in post collapse scenarios unless you have a good dietary source, black people in dim areas get Vitamin D deficiency diseases like rickets and have higher mortality in a hard enough crash. Gecko skinned gingers thrive better in overcast areas. Lots of people currently exist in environments they are biologically maladapted to, they are only able to live there because of modern fortified foods/supplements and medical care. Bright sunlight destroys folate (needed for reproduction) in pale people and causes skin cancer. Some people get S.A.D. and commit suicide in the gloomy winters of the pacific northwest USA. Just because a place is good in lots of other ways, you should not consider it if it will leave suicidal.
• Growing season, long versus short
• Long growing season usually means more heat for longer, more times to grow crops but usually less optimal conditions. Short seasons means you have to compress a lot more work in a shorter amount of time. It also means trees grow slower and growing your own fuel supply takes more land footprint while you simultaneously need more heating fuel. Places like iowa have moderate/short growing season but the high lattitude makes for long daylength which increases productivity during the moderate/short growing season. Rainfall is concentrated during the summer and soils highly fertile but it is practically one giant biocide saturated monoculture of death. It doesn’t matter if the you live in a fecund area if your future children die of bluebaby syndrome from the nitrate pollution in the well-water or end up mentally retarded from the chlorpyrifos spray drift bioaccumulating and destroying neural development in utero.
• Employment availability
• Let's be real here, most of you need to have employment to live, even as things crumble in a slow crash the vast majority will be dependent on employment and purchasing in the marketplace that which they need for subsistence. Cities are almost always better for employment. Keep in mind recently and historically, even prior to the industrial revolution, people were more often moving to cities to escape collapse scenarios in real life. You can look at africa and the middle east today. The reason is the city with its dense network effects can command food from a diversity of sources and the economics incentivize shipping surplus to cities. In times where the economics don't incentivize it governments usually seize it and send it to the cities. There is lots of historical precedent showing this, despite the general ruralist zeitgiest among collapsniks thinking that they need a homestead in the country. Employment or entitlements has been and will be the primary way people meet subsistence needs even in most collapse scenarios. Even in 3rd world areas that are experiencing famines, war, full infrastructure breakdown and conditions that are equivalent to 1st worlder visions of total collapse, people still wake up, go to work pulling weeds for the local land baron, get paid and then go buy a bowl of millet from the store.
• High versus low wages.
• some areas have low wages but this can come with benefits like low cost of living and people being pre-adapted to living through cooperative social behaviors and "ghetto rigging" improvisation. Last time i was in some shithole parts of arkansas i noticed just about every rural person had a decent sized garden, more than any other state i've been to. They feel compelled to share unlike some high-income places where people are clawing for money to pay rents or status seeking in a dog eat dog competitive environment. I have lived in quite a few homeless encampments and one thing that surprises people is how everyone gives away all surplus among each other, this is a paleolithic variance smoothing strategy, it is supernaturally effective and feels natural once you do it. I see it re-evolve over and over in poor people.
• Education levels and sociability of the population
• Is the area culturally acceptable to you? Are you acceptable to the people of the area?
• There are places that may have all sorts of good qualities but they are filled with ignorant racist meth head bible belt sociopaths who will torment you out of sheer boredom. Some places get full of these people and they reinforce the ignorance and shittiness into a dominant culture that you will be fighting against if you move there. When moving to a place where you are an outsider and the community is hostile to allowing assimilation that can reduce your survival odds. See various historical genocides.
• Distance from food sources
• Being close to a food source like right on a farm you grow on is great but if you have crop failure you may have no draw to bring in the food. Distance should be measured multiple ways including the strength and reliability of the transportation networks and the energetic distance for transport in energy descent scenarios. Think of the number of connections in the network you can draw from. In a city there are many stores each store sourcing from thousands of farmers, if a few farmers or stores fail there are still plenty of options. Some small rural towns depopulate once the single local walmart closes. Do you trust the local weather and your own potential self sufficiency more than markets/entitlements and transport resilience? Across what scenarios and time spans?
• Legal rights and entitlements availability
• Solid legal rights and strong property law is great if you are part of the ownership class but when you are dispossessed, lack of legal enforcement can give you a higher standard of living because you can build shelter and do side hustles things without having "the man" come slap you down. In a place like western Europe you may have recourse to welfare entitlements and unemployment insurance payments to buy food in financial crashes and slow crash scenarios, in some countries things like this are not available, this is more important than most people think. Indeed most recent famines occur where food is present but people just have no way to buy it because they are brokeAF, you don't see rich people in those areas starving.
• Water sources
• Water flows towards money. Just because there is a stream nearby doesn't mean you will be able to take water from it, you may need water rights while government is still able to enforce such edicts. Alternatively you may have impeccable senior water rights but the government enforcement is defunded and someone with zero water rights is upstream from you sucking the entire creek dry during a crash. Rainfall vs irrigation. rainfall allows a form of independence but having reliable irrigation can smooth out catastrophic variance in rain shortfalls. Don’t forget irrigation management was a major factor in the formation of early oppressive states.
• Transportation network.
• Even prior to the industrial revolution, in cities that had Sea Ports, the population in those cities had higher survival rates than those living in the countryside during famines. Transportation is critical. More transportation modes plane, train, automobile, bikepaths, all different roads, rails, canals, rivers etc. These transports allow goods to flow, which generally helps satisfy regional shortages. Some people judge the main threat to be people taking what they have, usually it is governments doing the taking in the historical record but many are concerned with mythical hordes. If you subscribe to this paranoia about people robbing your homestead you may enjoy being as minimally connected as possible to the transport system. You must determine based on your own preferences and expectations. Good transport is a double edged sword, it means food/resources can also be shipped out of your area towards money/powerful people, remember ownership norms and enforcement rarely disappear during collapse-like periods, indeed the ownership class still sends supplies to the highest bidder which may not be you, see Irish Gorta Mor for example.
• In places like london way back when they still burned wood as cooking and heating fuel there were estates just outside the city that were highly organized coppice producers that fueled the city. Wood is heavy and only so much could be carried in a cartload considering they relied on animal traction. There was a distance where bringing the wood to london to sell would not make you any money even despite you getting wood for free because the cost of the journey feeding yourself and animal took the entire value of the wood. These effects are worth thinking about across different transport scenarios. Assets become stranded and likewise things can become uneconomical to ship to you when you need things produced in the city. The wood producing estates outside london were well off financially and smaller estate size could provide higher income than the much more distant estates that were an order of magnitude larger. Transport matters, markets and trade continue to exist in practically every collapse and even in supermax prisons, expect to use markets as a survival strategy, it is more likely than you living some isolated mountain man scenario.
• Soil fertility
• (the older a soil is geologically X how much rainfall it gets) is what generally determines how fertile it is. The best soils are those that are relatively new and have been subjected to just enough rainfall to match the evapotranspiration rate, this minimizes nutrients leaching out, these are the mollisols/chernozems of the prairies. Because the water is just-enough in those zones they are also right at the edge where they can have major droughts with even slightly less rainfall. Wetter areas generally have less inherent soil fertility because of more leaching of nutrients but have more room for rainfall variability without plants meeting water deficiency.
• your social ties family friends locations
• Having a positive social environment with people you love while just getting by, is better than doing well financially and being socially isolated, for most people. Don’t abandon good family and friends if you can avoid it, it is usually not worth it. “Social capital” has always been a key to human flourishing. Many people in the collapse of the USSR survived on “blat”, not by relocating. A real world social network for altruistic reciprocity is a survival tool.
• Proximity to imperialist countries with militaries that may want/need your resources for themselves or their people
• Places like ukraine, some of the best farmland in the world, a country may seem optimal in many ways but historically this advantage was noted by outsiders and it has been at the crossroads of empires which means they suffered tremendously in war. The devastation of war and imperialism negated much of the natural benefits of the area when it comes to survival rates. This is something to consider. In parts of africa there is more conflict in abundant zones with more food, outside of famine zones because paramilitaries are supported from the land there and controlling the food supply is used as weapon of political power. Concentration of resources can make areas more dangerous, it makes attacking them economical.
• Fuel supply
• Pollution
• Population density
Most of these maps are of the USA. If you have other maps please post them in the comments and i will edit this post to squeeze them in. From these maps and a little critical thinking you can figure out where is best for YOU. If you need to figure something out go to google images and search for maps it is easier than ever to find what you need. But remember the map is not the territory, there are great spots maps don't have the resolution to show.These are just some random things i pulled up real quick. mapporn is a good source
https://gain.nd.edu/our-work/country-index/
https://ourworldindata.org/charts
https://ucanr.edu/blogs/dirt/blogfiles/37486_original.jpg
https://www.plantmaps.com/
There are a lot of submaps,for example if you click california then it brings first and last frost date maps, heat maps etc…
http://www.bonap.org/
On the left hand side there are lots of links to climate and biogeography maps
Firehazard map
https://imgur.com/a/drI7nZB middle of nowhere
hdd+cdd= change in energy requirements for climate control https://energyathaas.files.wordpress.com/2017/10/caldeira.png
https://fitzlab.shinyapps.io/cityapp/ Find out what your city will be like in 60 years
human development index https://imgur.com/a/VDmTac7
https://imgur.com/a/XoGw1Ic solar and wind potential combined
https://imgur.com/a/97XEe22 1% of population lives here
https://imgur.com/a/Ki4Zegq land quality
https://imgur.com/a/kYzus5H Fig. 2 Spatial distributions of projected damages. County-level median values for average 2080 to 2099 RCP8.5 impacts. Impacts are changes relative to counterfactual “no additional climate change” trajectories. Color indicates magnitude of impact in median projection; outline color indicates level of agreement across projections (thin white outline, inner 66% of projections disagree in sign; no outline, ≥83% of projections agree in sign; black outline, ≥95% agree in sign; thick white outline, state borders; maps without outlines shown in fig. S2). Negative damages indicate economic gains. (A) Percent change in yields, area-weighted average for maize, wheat, soybeans, and cotton. (B) Change in all-cause mortality rates, across all age groups. (C) Change in electricity demand. (D) Change in labor supply of full-time-equivalent workers for low-risk jobs where workers are minimally exposed to outdoor temperature. (E) Same as (D), except for high-risk jobs where workers are heavily exposed to outdoor temperatures. (F) Change in damages from coastal storms. (G) Change in property-crime rates. (H) Change in violent-crime rates. (I) Median total direct economic damage across all sectors [(A) to (H)].
https://i.redd.it/x9a2x7627vm31.png Nuclear targets
https://i.redd.it/s8stxdk9a6i31.jpg Chernobyl fallout, demonstrates the nonlinear patterns of distribution
https://i.redd.it/al06n7nofwi21.png Reliance on nuclear energy.
https://imgur.com/6o2XcHD
https://i.redd.it/jvp1e7maxhr01.jpg Global solar potential
https://i.redd.it/zk0hbo2bhf4z.png Renewable electric supply
Power plants http://i.imgur.com/esUA6iN.jpg
https://i.redd.it/6s781fax1cs21.jpg Red and orange have same populations
https://i.redd.it/cbndvblgz0x21.jpg Agricultural suitability
https://i.redd.it/cpkaqv5h11d31.jpg how america uses its land
https://i.redd.it/2w1va9h2w7431.png Life expectancy by congressional district
https://i.redd.it/kgrz9rweksx21.jpg food for humansgreen versus animal feed purple
https://i.imgur.com/TOlZ2SD.gif line that separates wet and dry USA
https://imgur.com/oqJXKsV Is food a human right? See paupericide
https://i.redd.it/xbvng0ul8nz01.jpg food self sufficiency
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315066937/figure/fig2/AS:[email protected]/Worlds-hybrid-PV-Wind-power-plant-cumulative-FLh-map.png combination wind+photovoltaic capacity
https://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/images/content/95539main_fig1.jpg human appropriated net primary productivity
https://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/images/content/95543main_fig2.jpg avoid the pink and orange unless your strategy is cannabilism in fast or hard crash.
https://nimaehsani.files.wordpress.com/2016/03/water_scarcity_map.jpg?w=748 water shortage
https://science.sciencemag.org/content/sci/354/6309/aaf8957/F5.large.jpg
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# Boolean data type

In computer science, the Boolean data type is a data type that has one of two possible values (usually denoted true and false) which is intended to represent the two truth values of logic and Boolean algebra. It is named after George Boole, who first defined an algebraic system of logic in the mid 19th century. The Boolean data type is primarily associated with conditional) statements, which allow different actions by changing control flow depending on whether a programmer-specified Boolean condition evaluates to true or false. It is a special case of a more general logical data type (see probabilistic logic)—logic doesn't always need to be Boolean.

## Generalities

In programming languages with a built-in Boolean data type, such as Pascal) and Java), the comparison operators such as > and ≠ are usually defined to return a Boolean value. Conditional and iterative commands may be defined to test Boolean-valued expressions.
Languages with no explicit Boolean data type, like C90 and Lisp), may still represent truth values by some other data type. Common Lisp uses an empty list for false, and any other value for true. The C programming language uses an integer) type, where relational expressions like i > j and logical expressions connected by && and || are defined to have value 1 if true and 0 if false, whereas the test parts of if , while , for , etc., treat any non-zero value as true.[1][2] Indeed, a Boolean variable may be regarded (and implemented) as a numerical variable with one binary digit (bit), which can store only two values. The implementation of Booleans in computers are most likely represented as a full word), rather than a bit; this is usually due to the ways computers transfer blocks of information.
Most programming languages, even those with no explicit Boolean type, have support for Boolean algebraic operations such as conjunction (AND , & , * ), disjunction (OR , | , + ), equivalence (EQV , = , == ), exclusive or/non-equivalence (XOR , NEQV , ^ , != ), and negation (NOT , ~ , ! ).
In some languages, like Ruby), Smalltalk, and Alice) the true and false values belong to separate classes), i.e., True and False , respectively, so there is no one Boolean type.
In SQL, which uses a three-valued logic for explicit comparisons because of its special treatment of Nulls), the Boolean data type (introduced in SQL:1999) is also defined to include more than two truth values, so that SQL Booleans can store all logical values resulting from the evaluation of predicates in SQL. A column of Boolean type can also be restricted to just TRUE and FALSE though.

## ALGOL and the built-in boolean type

One of the earliest programming languages to provide an explicit boolean data type is ALGOL 60 (1960) with values true and false and logical operators denoted by symbols ' ∧ {\displaystyle \wedge } 📷' (and), ' ∨ {\displaystyle \vee } 📷' (or), ' ⊃ {\displaystyle \supset } 📷' (implies), ' ≡ {\displaystyle \equiv } 📷' (equivalence), and ' ¬ {\displaystyle \neg } 📷' (not). Due to input device and character set limits on many computers of the time, however, most compilers used alternative representations for many of the operators, such as AND or 'AND' .
This approach with boolean as a built-in (either primitive or otherwise predefined) data type was adopted by many later programming languages, such as Simula 67 (1967), ALGOL 68 (1970),[3] Pascal) (1970), Ada) (1980), Java) (1995), and C#) (2000), among others.

## Fortran

The first version of FORTRAN (1957) and its successor FORTRAN II (1958) have no logical values or operations; even the conditional IF statement takes an arithmetic expression and branches to one of three locations according to its sign; see arithmetic IF. FORTRAN IV (1962), however, follows the ALGOL 60 example by providing a Boolean data type (LOGICAL ), truth literals (.TRUE. and .FALSE. ), Boolean-valued numeric comparison operators (.EQ. , .GT. , etc.), and logical operators (.NOT. , .AND. , .OR. ). In FORMAT statements, a specific format descriptor ('L ') is provided for the parsing or formatting of logical values.[4]

## Lisp and Scheme

The language Lisp) (1958) never had a built-in Boolean data type. Instead, conditional constructs like cond assume that the logical value false is represented by the empty list () , which is defined to be the same as the special atom nil or NIL ; whereas any other s-expression is interpreted as true. For convenience, most modern dialects of Lisp predefine the atom t to have value t , so that t can be used as a mnemonic notation for true.
This approach (any value can be used as a Boolean value) was retained in most Lisp dialects (Common Lisp, Scheme), Emacs Lisp), and similar models were adopted by many scripting languages, even ones having a distinct Boolean type or Boolean values; although which values are interpreted as false and which are true vary from language to language. In Scheme, for example, the false value is an atom distinct from the empty list, so the latter is interpreted as true.

The language Pascal) (1970) introduced the concept of programmer-defined enumerated types. A built-in Boolean data type was then provided as a predefined enumerated type with values FALSE and TRUE . By definition, all comparisons, logical operations, and conditional statements applied to and/or yielded Boolean values. Otherwise, the Boolean type had all the facilities which were available for enumerated types in general, such as ordering and use as indices. In contrast, converting between Boolean s and integers (or any other types) still required explicit tests or function calls, as in ALGOL 60. This approach (Boolean is an enumerated type) was adopted by most later languages which had enumerated types, such as Modula, Ada), and Haskell).

## C, C++, Objective-C, AWK

Initial implementations of the language C) (1972) provided no Boolean type, and to this day Boolean values are commonly represented by integers (int s) in C programs. The comparison operators (> , == , etc.) are defined to return a signed integer (int ) result, either 0 (for false) or 1 (for true). Logical operators (&& , || , ! , etc.) and condition-testing statements (if , while ) assume that zero is false and all other values are true.
After enumerated types (enum s) were added to the American National Standards Institute version of C, ANSI C (1989), many C programmers got used to defining their own Boolean types as such, for readability reasons. However, enumerated types are equivalent to integers according to the language standards; so the effective identity between Booleans and integers is still valid for C programs.
Standard C) (since C99) provides a boolean type, called _Bool . By including the header stdbool.h , one can use the more intuitive name bool and the constants true and false . The language guarantees that any two true values will compare equal (which was impossible to achieve before the introduction of the type). Boolean values still behave as integers, can be stored in integer variables, and used anywhere integers would be valid, including in indexing, arithmetic, parsing, and formatting. This approach (Boolean values are just integers) has been retained in all later versions of C. Note, that this does not mean that any integer value can be stored in a boolean variable.
C++ has a separate Boolean data type bool , but with automatic conversions from scalar and pointer values that are very similar to those of C. This approach was adopted also by many later languages, especially by some scripting languages such as AWK.
Objective-C also has a separate Boolean data type BOOL , with possible values being YES or NO , equivalents of true and false respectively.[5] Also, in Objective-C compilers that support C99, C's _Bool type can be used, since Objective-C is a superset of C.

## Perl and Lua

Perl has no boolean data type. Instead, any value can behave as boolean in boolean context (condition of if or while statement, argument of && or || , etc.). The number 0 , the strings "0" and "" , the empty list () , and the special value undef evaluate to false.[6] All else evaluates to true.
Lua) has a boolean data type, but non-boolean values can also behave as booleans. The non-value nil evaluates to false, whereas every other data type always evaluates to true, regardless of value.

## Tcl

Tcl has no separate Boolean type. Like in C, the integers 0 (false) and 1 (true - in fact any nonzero integer) are used.[7]
Examples of coding:
set v 1 if { $v } { puts "V is 1 or true" } The above will show "V is 1 or true" since the expression evaluates to '1' set v "" if {$v } ....
The above will render an error as variable 'v' cannot be evaluated as '0' or '1'

## Python, Ruby, and JavaScript

Python), from version 2.3 forward, has a bool type which is a subclass) of int , the standard integer type.[8] It has two possible values: True and False , which are special versions of 1 and 0 respectively and behave as such in arithmetic contexts. Also, a numeric value of zero (integer or fractional), the null value (None ), the empty string), and empty containers (i.e. lists), sets), etc.) are considered Boolean false; all other values are considered Boolean true by default.[9] Classes can define how their instances are treated in a Boolean context through the special method __nonzero__ (Python 2) or __bool__ (Python 3). For containers, __len__ (the special method for determining the length of containers) is used if the explicit Boolean conversion method is not defined.
In Ruby), in contrast, only nil (Ruby's null value) and a special false object are false, all else (including the integer 0 and empty arrays) is true.
In JavaScript, the empty string ("" ), null , undefined , NaN , +0, −0 and false [10] are sometimes called falsy (of which the complement) is truthy) to distinguish between strictly type-checked and coerced Booleans.[11] As opposed to Python, empty containers (arrays , Maps, Sets) are considered truthy. Languages such as PHP also use this approach.

## Next Generation Shell

Next Generation Shell, has Bool type. It has two possible values: true and false . Bool is not interchangeable with Int and have to be converted explicitly if needed. When a Boolean value of an expression is needed (for example in if statement), Bool method is called. Bool method for built-in types is defined such that it returns false for a numeric value of zero, the null value, the empty string), empty containers (i.e. lists), sets), etc.), external processes that exited with non-zero exit code; for other values Bool returns true. Types for which Bool method is defined can be used in Boolean context. When evaluating an expression in Boolean context, If no appropriate Bool method is defined, an exception is thrown.

## SQL

Main article: Null (SQL) § Comparisons with NULL and the three-valued logic (3VL)#Comparisonswith_NULL_and_the_three-valued_logic(3VL))
Booleans appear in SQL when a condition is needed, such as WHERE clause, in form of predicate which is produced by using operators such as comparison operators, IN operator, IS (NOT) NULL etc. However, apart from TRUE and FALSE, these operators can also yield a third state, called UNKNOWN, when comparison with NULL is made.
The treatment of boolean values differs between SQL systems.
For example, in Microsoft SQL Server, boolean value is not supported at all, neither as a standalone data type nor representable as an integer. It shows an error message "An expression of non-boolean type specified in a context where a condition is expected" if a column is directly used in the WHERE clause, e.g. SELECT a FROM t WHERE a , while statement such as SELECT column IS NOT NULL FROM t yields a syntax error. The BIT data type, which can only store integers 0 and 1 apart from NULL, is commonly used as a workaround to store Boolean values, but workarounds need to be used such as UPDATE t SET flag = IIF(col IS NOT NULL, 1, 0) WHERE flag = 0 to convert between the integer and boolean expression.
In PostgreSQL, there is a distinct BOOLEAN type as in the standard[12] which allows predicates to be stored directly into a BOOLEAN column, and allows using a BOOLEAN column directly as a predicate in WHERE clause.
In MySQL, BOOLEAN is treated as an alias as TINYINT(1)[13], TRUE is the same as integer 1 and FALSE is the same is integer 0.[14], and treats any non-zero integer as true when evaluating conditions.
The SQL92 standard introduced IS (NOT) TRUE, IS (NOT) FALSE, IS (NOT) UNKNOWN operators which evaluate a predicate, which predated the introduction of boolean type in SQL:1999
The SQL:1999 standard introduced a BOOLEAN data type as an optional feature (T031). When restricted by a NOT NULL constraint, a SQL BOOLEAN behaves like Booleans in other languages, which can store only TRUE and FALSE values. However, if it is nullable, which is the default like all other SQL data types, it can have the special null) value also. Although the SQL standard defines three literals) for the BOOLEAN type – TRUE, FALSE, and UNKNOWN – it also says that the NULL BOOLEAN and UNKNOWN "may be used interchangeably to mean exactly the same thing".[15][16] This has caused some controversy because the identification subjects UNKNOWN to the equality comparison rules for NULL. More precisely UNKNOWN = UNKNOWN is not TRUE but UNKNOWN/NULL.[17] As of 2012 few major SQL systems implement the T031 feature.[18] Firebird and PostgreSQL are notable exceptions, although PostgreSQL implements no UNKNOWN literal; NULL can be used instead.[19]

Data typesUninterpreted
Numeric
Pointer)
Text
Composite
Other
Related topics

## References

1. "PostgreSQL: Documentation: 10: 8.6. Boolean Type". www.postgresql.org. Archived from the original on 9 March 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
Categories:

### Languages

• 📷
• 📷
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